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tv   U.S. Senate  CSPAN  January 9, 2012 8:30am-12:00pm EST

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jon huntsman will be in competitor at a rally scheduled for 7 p.m. eastern. you can see these events later today on our companion network, c-span. >> if you really want to see the candidates, c-span's road to the white house political coverage takes you on the campaign trail. >> well, i think it's a little hard for pollsters to know exactly who's going to come out. you are! i'm pleased pleased that we're g the kinds of crowds that we're seeing, so pretty exciting. >> go to town hall, campaign rallies and meet and greets. [inaudible conversations]
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>> thank you for coming. it was enjoyable. >> it's a pleasure to have a listening ear. thank you for giving one. >> i do have a question for you. you talked about bringing manufacturing back here to the united states. what are some to have plans to do that. >> are you planning on taxing some of these big countries -- companies or shipping the work overseas? >> i want a tax code that clears out all of the loopholes -- >> watch our new hampshire primary coverage on c-span television and on our web site, >> now, secretary of state hillary clinton on women's rights. last month she talked about an executive order signed by president obama that establishes the nation's first-ever plan for promoting women's rights. it calls for peace-building efforts and protecting women from violence. she talked about the initiative during a speech at georgetown university. this is about 50 minutes. >> thank you very much, carol. it is my pleasure to welcome all of you here this afternoon. it's truly an honor to have with
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us so many distinguished guests and national leaders, especially the united states secretary of state, hillary rodham clinton, who will discuss the u.s. action plan on women, peace and security. i want to join carol in expressing what a privilege it is to welcome the president of kosovo. it's an honor for us to have you with us today. your leadership exemplifies a deep commitment to establishing peaceful solutions to conflict. it's an honor for us to have you with us. secretary clinton's presence here today follows more than a decade of international dialogue on the role of women in peace building and development. in 2000 the united states security council passed resolution 1325 to formally recognize the importance of promoting gender equality and the empowerment of women to prevent, manage and resolve conflict and to protect the rights of women and girls.
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since then countries around the world have adopted the resolution supporting more equitable approaches to peace and security. for nearly four decades and in various roles, secretary clinton has championed these efforts. she has long been a voice for the disempowered and disenfranchised. most recently through her remarks in geneva which addressed the dignity and equality of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transjerpd communities. [applause] transgender communities. [applause] secretary clinton's speech advanced and extended the work begun in beijing in 1995 where she declared that human rights are women's rights, and women's rights are human rights. this is a legacy, this is the
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legacy that brings us together today. it is also a tradition that resonates profoundly with our work here at georgetown. guided by the university's catholic and jesuit identity, we are a community animated by a deep commitment to social justice. we recognize a responsibility to prepare our young women and men to address the new kinds of challenges emerge anything this time of globalization -- emerging in this time of globalization. as a result, the university has developed new academic programs and initiatives such as our degree and conflict resolution and our women's law and public policy fellowship program to broaden our students' engagement with issues of peace building and the global status of women. we've also launched an initiative on women, peace, security and development animated by the vision embedded in the new national action plan that was released today.
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this initiative will focus on convening leaders, scholars and practitioners dedicated to studying the role of women in conflicts, transitions and humanitarian emergencies. its primary purpose will be to contribute rigorous research to the wider dialogue on these issues. with all this work, we're deeply honored to be a part of an international community of leaders, scholars and advocates committed to insuring that women's voices are heard. and there are few more inspiring leaders shaping these efforts than secretary clinton. hillary rodham clinton now serves as the of 7th -- 67th united states secretary of state. under her leadership, the state department appointed its first-ever ambassador to focus on the us the of women worldwide. the honorable milan favre who, as carol mentioned, we're proud
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to include as a distinguished member of our community. before being appointed to her current position by president obama, secretary clinton served as the united states senator from new york where she was a strong advocate for the expansion of economic opportunity and access to health care. prior to that as first lady, for eight years she worked on many issues relating to children and families. including leading a successful bipartisan effort to provide care to millions of children through the children's health insurance program. representing america abroad, she has traveled to more than 80 countries promoting human rights democracy, the values of law and liberty and the welfare of women. it is now my pleasure to introduce the united states' secretary of state, the honorable hillary rodham clinton. [applause]
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>> thank you. [applause] thank you all very much. thank you. well, it is wonderful to be back at georgetown to give all of the students an excuse not to keep studying for their last finals. [laughter] that's what accounts for the enthusiastic response here in gadsdon hall. thank you so much, degioia. this university has such a long history of nurturing diplomats and peacemakers and at least one former president who still bleeds blue and gray -- [cheers and applause] and the little known secret which i'll spill today is that, um, my husband and milan -- melanne and her husband were all
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at georgetown at the same time, so who knows what might happen decades from now with all of you and your colleagues. [laughter] i also want to acknowledge two members of congress who are here, russ carnahan and john conyers, thank you very much, as well as members of the diplomatic corps, um, and i personally wish to welcome the president of kosovo who has been a champion for peace and reconciliation and also for women in her country and beyond. the president has been a strong voice and someone who we are very proud of and impressed by. i'm also pleased to be joined, as you've already heard, from a great group of colleagues from across our government; undersecretary michelle flournoy, admiral sandy winfelt,
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samantha power from the white house and others who are here in the audience. and on a personal basis, i want to say to michelle flournoy who has just announced that she will be leaving early next year from the defense department what a valued partner she has been and a terrific leader for our country, and we will miss you, but we know your public service days are far from over. thank you, michelle. [applause] i also want to recognize all the members of our armed forces who are with us today. i'd like to give them all a round of applause. [applause] all of you and those who are serving and leading are on our minds and in our hearts this holiday season.
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this is, after all, a time when we are called upon to think more deeply about peace and what more we can do to try to achieve it. and we also think about security and what kind of a gift we can give to future generations so that they, too, have the opportunities that all of us enjoy. today i want to focus on one aspect of peacemaking that too often goes overlooked, the role of women in ending conflict and building lasting security. some of you may have watched a week ago saturday as three remarkable women -- two from liberia, one from yemen -- accepted the nobel peace prize in oslo. for years many of us have tried to show the world that women are not just victims of war, they are agents of peace. and that was the wisdom behind
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the historic u.n. security council resolution 1325 which was adopted a decade ago, but whose promise remains largely unfulfilled. so it was deeply heartening to see those three women command the global spotlight and urge the international community to adopt an approach to making peace that includes women as full and equal partners. and that call was underscored this past thursday when hundreds of leaders and activists gathered at the tate department to launch -- at the state department to launch a new partnership with america's top women's colleges to train and support women and girls going in to public service around the world. and, of course, those women were incredibly impressive, and some were quite courageous. one took me asid and said -- aside and said she hadn't gotten permission from her government to come, but she came anyway.
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they are so eager to pour their talents and energy into their communities and to make their countries even better. they are ready to work for peace, enter politics, serve in the military, lead civil society, live up to their own god-given potential. they just need the opportunity. and that is why in a speech that i delivered in new york on friday night i highlighted the growing body of evidence that shows how women around the world contribute to making and keeping peace and that these contributions lead to better outcomes for entire societies. from northern ireland to liberia to nepal and many places in between, we have seen that when women participate in peace processes, they focus discussion on issues like human rights, justice, national reconciliation and economic renewal that are
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critical to making peace but often are overlooked in formal negotiations. they build coalitions across ethnic and sectarian lines, and they speak up for other marginalized groups. they act as mediators and help to foster compromise. and when women organize in large numbers, they call the vannize -- galvanize opinion and help change the course of history. think of those remarkable women in liberia who marched and sang and prayed until their country's warring factions finally agreed to end their conflict and move toward democracy. if you have seen the movie -- and if you haven't, i highly recommend it -- it's called "pray the devil back to hell." you know that these brave women literally laid siege to the negotiations until the men inside the rooms signed a deal.
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now, i know some of you may be thinking to yourselves, well, there she goes again, hillary clinton always talks about women. [laughter] and why should i or anyone else really care? well, you should care because this is not just a woman's issue, it cannot be relegated to the margins of international affairs, it truly does cut to the heart of our national security and the security of people everywhere. because the sad fact is that the way the international community tries to build peace and security today just isn't getting the job done. dozens of active conflicts are raging around the world undermining regional and global stability and ravaging entire populations. and more than half of all peace agreements fail within five
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years. at the same time, women are too often excluded from both the negotiations that make peace and the institutions that maintain it. now, of course, some women wield weapons of war, that's true. and many more are victims of it. but too few are empowered to be instruments of peace and security. that is an unacceptable waste of talent. and of opportunity for the rest of us as well. across the middle east and north africa, nations are emerging from revolution and beginning the transition to democracy. and here, too, women are being excluded and increasingly even targeted. recent events in egypt have been particularly shocking. women are being beaten and humiliated in the same streets where they risked their lives for the revolution only a few
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short months ago. and this is part of a deeply troubling pattern. egyptian women have been largely shut out of decision making in the transition by both the military authorities and the major political parties. at the same time, they have been specifically targeted both by security forces and by extremists. marchers celebrating international women's day were harassed and abused. women protesters have been rounded up and subjected to horrific abuse. journalists have been sexually assaulted. and now women are being attacked, stripped and beaten in the streets. this systematic degradation of egyptian women dishonors the revolution, disgraces the state
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and its uniform and is not worthy of a great people. as some egyptian politicians and commentators have themselves noted, a new democracy cannot be built on the persecution of women. nor can any stable society. whether it's ending conflict, managing a transition or rebuilding a country, the world cannot afford to continue ignoring half the population. not only can we do better, we have to do better. and now we have a path forward as to how we will do better. that is why this morning president obama signed an executive order launching the first-ever u.s. national action plan on women, peace and security; a comprehensive road map for accelerating and institutionalizing efforts across the united states
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government to advance women's participation in making and keeping peace. this plan builds on the president's national security strategy, and it was jointly developed by the departments of state and defense, usaid and others with guidance from the white house. i also want to take a moment to recognize all our partners in civil society and the private sector who contributed, many of whom are here today. without your on-the-ground experience, your passionate commitment and your tireless effort, this plan would not exist. and we look forward to working just as closely together with you on implementing it. let me describe briefly how we will do that. the plan lays out five areas in which we will redouble our efforts. first, we will partner with women in vulnerable areas to prevent conflicts from breaking out in the first place.
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women are bellwethers of society and, in fact, sometimes they do play the role of canary in the coal mine. they know when communities are fraying and when citizens fear for their safety. studies suggest that women's physical security and higher levels of gender equality correlate with security and peacefulness of entire countries. but political leaders too often overlook women's knowledge and experience until it's too late to stop violence from spiraling out of control. so the united states will invest in early warning systems that incorporate gender analysis and monitor increases in violence and discrimination against women which can be indicators of future conflict. we will also support grassroots women's organizations that work to stop violence and promote peace. and because women's economic
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empowerment leads to greater prosperity for their societies, we are putting women and girls at the center of our global efforts on food security, health and entrepreneurship. we are working to lower barriers to their economic participation so more women in more places have the opportunity to own their land, start their businesses, access markets, steps that will ultimately lift up not only their families, but entire economies and societies. but what if despite our best efforts conflict does flare? a second focus of our national action plan is strengthening protection for women and girls during and after conflict. we work with partners -- we will work with partners on the ground to crack down on rape as a tactic of war, hold perpetrators of violation accountable and support survivors of sexual and
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gender-based violence. now, one place to start is with the poorly-trained soldiers and police who contribute to a culture of lawlessness, of violation and impunity -- violence and impunity and often are fueled by discrimination against any woman outside their family. the united states will help build the capacity of foreign militaries, police forces and justice systems to strengthen the rule of law and insure that protecting civilians and stopping sexual and gender-based violence in particular is a shared priority. we are also working with the u.n. to recruit more female peace keepers to better train all peace keepers to prevent, predict and react to violence against civilians and to address the political dynamics that drive sexual violence in conflict areas. because it's not just soldiers.
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political leaders, local influentials set the tone for these abuses, and they must be held accountable as well. the united states will support survivors of violence and help give them new tools to report crimes and access shelters, rehabilitation centers, legal support and other services. we will also back advocacy organizations that reach out to men and pois including -- boys including religious and tribal leaders to reduce sexual and gender-based violence in homes and communities. i worked some years ago with citizens in senegal to end the practice of female circumcision, and we made the case on the basis that it was bad for the health of the future mothers of senegal. and we were able to convince tribal and religious leaders to join our cause. and it's that kind of programmatic approach that we
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want to see more of. now, ultimately, the best way to protect citizens is to end the conflict itself, so a third focus of the national action plan is expanding women's participation in peace processes and decision making institutions before, during and after conflicts. as i explained in my speech on friday in new york, women bring critical perspectives and concerns to the peace table and can help shape stronger and more durable agreements. take just one example. during 2006 peace negotiations in darfur, male negotiators deadlocked over the control of a particular river until local women who have the experience of fetching water and washing clothes pointed out that the river had already dried up. [laughter] yeah, i know, i particularly like that one too. [laughter] excluding women means excluding the entire wealth of knowledge,
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experience and talent we can offer. so the united states will use the full weight of our diplomacy to push combatants and mediators to include women as equal partners in peace negotiations. we will work with civil society to help women and other leaders give voice to the voiceless. and we will also help countries affected by conflict design laws, policies and practices that promote gender equality so that women can be partners in rebuilding their society after the violence ends. and that brings me to the fourth focus of our plan. insuring that relief and recovery efforts address the distinct needs of women and girls who are the linchpins of families and communities and invaluable partners in stabilizing countries scarred by conflict. this is crucial because humanitarian crises caused by
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conflict can be just as dangerous as the fighting itself. and can sow the seed of future instability. women are often among the most vulnerable in crises, yet they rarely receive a proportionate share of assistance or have the chance to help set postconflict priorities. but with the right tools and support, women can lead recovery efforts and help get their communities back on their feet. so the united states will encourage our international partners to include women and civil society organizations in the design and implementation of relief efforts and reconstruction planning. we will designate gender advisers for all usaid crisis response and recovery teams, and these advisers will highlight the specific concerns of women and girls to insure that their perspectives are solicited and incorporated in the design and implementation of our programs.
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refugees and other displaced people are highly vulnerable to exploitation and abuse including sexual violence. so we will prioritize prevention and response to sexual violence along with other life saving humanitarian assistance and help build critical services such as food distribution, emergency education, cash-for-work programs and health centers around women and their needs including reproductive and maternal health care. small steps have been a big impact. for example, i've talked with women who walk long distances from their refugee camps to find wood for their cooking fires, putting them at great risk of assault and rape. i remember being in the very large camp in goma in eastern democratic republic of congo, and all the women told me the same thing, that they were in
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this camp where there were many international ngos and humanitarian relief organizations, but they were still having to go out on their own to find wood to make sure that they had an adequate supply of fuel. and they were subject to attack when they left the camp. and it struck me as sort of strange, couldn't we organize either teams of people to help the women as they went out and to protect them, or was there a better way that we could pursue to really eliminate this problem? so we are supporting a global effort to provide cleaner and safer stoves that require less fuel and, therefore, fewer trips through dangerous territory. the clean cook stoves global alliance that we are at the center of creating and expanding is doing research with the national institutes of health because this is a three-for-one
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investment. yes, women don't have to stray so far from home or from a refugee camp to have fuel to cook the family's food, secondly, children and women will not be dying from respiratory diseases which are, unfortunately, the by-product of breathing that smoke all day, every day, sometimes in very confined spaces. and thirdly, we will cut down on black carbon and black soot which is good for the environment. so we're very focused on bringing this to scale over the next years, and we have a lot of support in doing so. now, i realize that this national action plan lays out an ambitious agenda that will require a lot of concentrated and coordinated effort. so the fifth focus is institutionalizing this work across the united states government. as part of this process, we will increase training for our troops, diplomats and
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development experts on international human rights and humanitarian law, protecting civilians, preventing is and responding to sexual and gender-based violence and combating trafficking in persons. we will update policies and practices across our government because our goal l is to fundamentally change the way we do business. the president's executive order directs key departments and agencies to develop comprehensive strategies to implement the national action plan within fife months. five month t. -- five months. and let me offer a few specific examples of what this will look like. at the state department, we have already begun a new initiative on women, security and peace in africa focused on building local capacity in country affected by conflict. its first round of grants will train women activists and journalists in kenya in early warning systems for violence, support a new trauma center for rape survivors in sudan, help women in the central african
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republic access legal and economic services and improve collection of medical evidence for prosecution of gender-based violence in the democratic republic of congo. and that's just the beginning because around the world from iraq and afghanistan to south sudan, the new transitional democracies in the middle east and north africa, our embassies are developing local strategies to empower women politically, economically and socially. at usaid among other projects, we will be launching a new global women's leadership fund in partnership with the consortium for elections and political process strengthening. ..
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>> and its deep understanding about the links between the security and agency of women and the peace and stability of nations. so by working with partner militaries, the pentagon will build on the excellent work already underway in places like afghanistan, where our provincial reconstruction teams in gauge with communities to curb violence against women, honor killings, and female immolation. and in the democratic republic of the congo, where africom experts are training local soldiers to protect human rights and prevent sexual and gender-based violence. and i'm very proud that we have several female flag and general officers with us today, living proof of how important women are
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to american national security. in today's military, women are leading carrier strike groups, expeditionary strike groups, and numbered air force and. be on the front lines dfid -- defending our country, responding to disasters, and working with are alice and her partner. and other parts of our government are also stepping forward. the centers for disease control and prevention is launching a new system to monitor sexual and gender-based violence in nearly 20 countries. the department of justice is working with police, prosecutors, judges, ngo workers around the world to increase accountability for sexual violence and human trafficking. and the list goes on. suffice it to say, this is truly a whole of government effort as well as an international effort. and the national action plan will help us work with allies and partners here at home as well as abroad. and i'm delighted by the announcement, president
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degioia and dean lancaster, about georgetown's leadership. there couldn't be a better institution to lead the way in the academic work that is necessary around these issues. and, in fact, more than 30 countries have already developed their own national action plans. nato is factoring women and their needs into key planning processes and training courses, stationing gender experts throughout operational headquarters, and deploying female engagement teams to afghanistan, where the alliance is also training local women to serve in the security forces. in 2012, 10% of the afghan military academy's class will be women, and by 2014 afghanistan expects to field 5000 women afghan national police officers. the united nations is also making important progress, building on resolution 1325. with strong u.s. support, the security council has already
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adopted for additional resolutions on women and security in just the past three years. and last month, the general assembly's third committee adopted a new us-led resolution to encourage greater political participation for women and an expanded role in making and keeping peace. and the establishment of a new organization within the u.n. system focus on gender called you in women, headed by the former president of chile michele bachelet is also making his an important focus. and the secretary joe has appointed a special representative for sexual violence and conflict, a step we strongly support, and the department of peacekeeping operations has steadily improved its guidance to peacekeeping in order to offer protection and leadership as key training components. now, why is all this happening, all these countries, the united nations, nato, and certainly us?
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well, the reason is because we are convinced. we have enough anecdotal evidence and research that demonstrates women in peacekeeping is both the right thing to do and the smart thing as well. it's right, because after all, women are affected disproportionately by conflict. they deserve to participate in the decisions that shape their own lives. and it's the smart thing because we have seen again and again that women participating in these processes build more durable peace. but as strong as the case is, it's true that the question of just how women contribute to peace and security, aside from the high profile woman who sits at the table, or the nation's leader that makes the piece, what it is that women themselves across the board can do? well, this does deserve far more quantitative research and
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rigorous study. that's why georgetown's plan to establish an institute for women, peace, security, and development, to support scholarship and research, as well as outreach, will help us elevate public understanding of this important matter. it will be a home for primary source material such as oral histories, and quality analysis that will help activists and leaders as well. i can't wait to see it up and going. a new push on research and data collection will be particularly useful for us as we implement our own national action plan. of course, we know that change will not come easily and it certainly won't come quickly. but to ensure that we are headed in the right direction, that our strategies are effective and sustainable, we have to be able to measure what we are doing. and that means developing sound metrics to guide us. so thanks to georgetown for taking on this really important task.
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let me close by telling you about one woman whose experiences and accomplishments embody much of what we are discussing today, and that is our special guest, the president of kosovo. she's here with us today, and i've been able to spend some wonderful time with her over the last few days and in meetings before she came. and i won't, like carol, tell you how young she is, but let's just say that she's accomplished a great deal in a very short period. the future president was still a student when war tore apart our homeland. now, i will never forget those days, meeting cultivar families in a refugee camp, meeting others in europe, hearing their stories, being forced from their home at gunpoint, the haunted pain in the eyes of a doctor who was literally chased from caring
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for patients. it was a terrible conflict, and i'm very proud of the role that the united states played in ending the violence. after finishing her studies, this young woman, who would not have been identified as a future president of an independent kosovo, went to work as a police officer so she could help keep the peace and protect her community. she worked closely with international troops. she earned the respect of her colleagues, both on the front lines and in the offices where decisions were made, and she earned the trust of her fellow citizens, men and women alike. she rose through the ranks quickly, if eventually helping lead the new kosovo police force. and then earlier this year, she became the first woman elected president of kosovo, and also the first woman elected president anywhere in the
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balkans. since then, she has shown consistent leadership, and worked to bring her country together behind a program of good governance, rule of law, ethnic reconciliation, and regional stability. she has also stood up for the rights and opportunities of kosovo's women. and as she explained at a recent investment conference in zagreb with women entrepreneurs, she understands the role that women must play in increasing regional prosperity and security. like so many women around the world, president jahjaga endured the pain of war and was determined to secure the benefits of peace. coso is better off because she insisted on being part of the solution. our goal together should be to open that opportunity to women in every place where keys and stability are threatened so that they too can contribute to lasting security for their communities and their countries.
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that is what this national action plan is all about. and that is now the mission and the redoubled purpose of our own government. and it is the future of peacemaking. there is so much to be done, and i know that many of you here who are studying at georgetown had a future ahead of you of being among the peacemakers and keepers in government, in ngo's, and multi-and -- multilateral institutions, in our nations military, in academia. we need you and we welcome your commitment to this great struggle of the 21st century, ensuring peace, equality, prosperity, and opportunity in the context of freedom and democracy for people where ever. -- everywhere. thank you for deciding to be
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part of the solution, and i now look forward to taking some questions about how we can chart this new approach together. [applause] thank you. >> secretary clinton has agreed to take two questions. and so we'll begin with you. please introduce yourself and say where you're from. >> my name's emily roskowski. i'm a second year master of science and foreign service student, and i'm richly from maryland, eleanor maryland. and i was wondering how the action plan will deal with the cultural sensitive issues including cultural norms and
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sensitivities within the plan, and how it might have an impact, implementation mechanism that will, that might take into account any potential community backlash. >> i think that's an actual question, and, of course, it's something we think about all the time. and it's really along a spectrum of actions and reactions. of course, we understand that there are differences that are of historic and cultural importance in many places around the world. and many of those we respect, and we tried to be very sensitive to the legitimate concerns that people have about protecting what they value in their own societies. but there are certain actions that are beyond any cultural norm. you know, beating women is not cultural, it's criminal, and he needs to be addressed and treated as such.
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[applause] and then there are those historic practices like female circumcision that have been around for centuries, or honor killings, which served a purpose in a prior time, that we believe we must address by demonstrating how counterproductive, how destructive they are of the very fabric of the society that is being effected by them. so when you look at the work we did in senegal, you know, we pointed to the great difficulties women had bearing children. now, bearing children is a high priority. so if you're doing something that you've inherited from centuries before that now, today, you know is destructive
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and undermining of an even higher priority, namely, having children and producing the next generation, you begin the conversation not in an accusatory fashion but in an effort to try to have a dialogue about what works today that perhaps didn't. i mean, a lot of people, if you look at the series madman, were smoking badly, and till it became pretty irrefutable that doing so would shorten your life. and then we learned secondhand smoke might shorten other peoples lies. well, you know, there are things we learned that can be viewed as somehow outside of the historical and even cultural framework. so we are aware of the sensitivities, and what we try to do is whatever possible have a respectful dialogue. the training and programmatic approaches that we support
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through usaid and other institutions, certainly a chance to do that. but then there are certain areas where you cannot do comedy, you cannot be sensitive, you have to draw lines, and we are looking for how to do that. now, in this area of women's peace and security, we are acquiring a body of evidence about the roles that women play. women played a very critical role in ending the northern ireland troubles, in ending the civil wars in central america, in ending the library more that i just mentioned, in being part of peacemaking and other conflicts throughout the world. and so we have both an argument as to it being an important goal, but we also have evidence that points to tactics and strategies about how you achieve that goal.
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so i'm hopeful that we will get a broader discussion. and finally, you know, i would say that when people set their own goals, norms, and values, and then they violate them, it provides an opening for discussion not only coming from the outside, but from within. certainly, it seems that we are seeing out of egypt today should be first and foremost distressing to egyptians and not to us or others before the egyptian people themselves. the promise, the beauty of the revolutionary aspirations that everyone watched unfold in tahrir square, the restraint of the security forces in how they responded, you know, all of that was very promising, and it was held up by the egyptian people, leaders and citizens alike, as
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will a new egypt would look like. the scenes of coptic christians protecting muslims while praying, and and muslims protecting coptic christians while praying was an egyptian scene, not an american or european or western. and so when countries are running afoul of their own best cells, when a great country with such a history of egypt is seeing unfold before their eyes this kind of violence, then there needs to be a reaction from within. and women's voices need to be heard and women need to be protected as they assume a position at every table in the country to make decisions about the future. so there's no formula or guidebook that you can look at, but those are some of the general principles by which we
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try to think through and do our work. [applause] >> one more question. introduce yourself, please. >> i mark lehgan, and i'm on the faculty of the master of science and foreign service program, and i'm thankful that dean lancaster assessment to be on the advisory board of the new institute. i've got a question that was in form by being ambassador said about his predecessor being educating the human trafficking office at the state department. after the gender crime, the human rights abuses, the breakdown of the rule of law happens. i was delighted to see her emphasis on prevention, getting women involved up front, and political participation. as you roll out a presidential plan, i would imagine that the prevention, getting women involved up front. what you think you can do to look at the prevention side and make sure that sticks through
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the years following on to this plan speaks great question, ambassador, and, obviously, it's something that we work on a lot because what often happens, and it's not just in international affairs. i mean, it is also in our own domestic resource allocation. very often prevention gets short shrift because you do with the crisis and then it's a kind of circular argument, maybe we could've uploaded a crisis if we had actress but more and prevention. so it's one of those conundrums that we face in policy across the board. but certainly in this particular area of women, peace, and security, the more we can invest in prevention, and it is probably defined. there are programs which we think work. our interventions like the global cookstoves alliance that can prevent perhaps more women than being assaulted or killed as they seek firewood. there are programs that support ngos and even other
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governments efforts to protect and empower women. so we have to be smart about what we invest in, especially in these budgetary times but really anytime we need to be. and we also need the metrics, a measurable outcomes. we have to be quite clear about this. we can't continue supporting programs because we know the people and we like them, or because they worked 10 years ago but they are not working today. so we have to be creative and innovative and you know, very clear eyed. now, i do think we have some tools that we are beginning to understand better how to use, and that's cell phones and the internet. equipping women with cell phones so that they can get information in real-time about matters that are important to them and powers them in ways that we couldn't have imagined just a few short years ago. getting information to go to
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your area of trafficking, trying to get broader information about what to look out for, be aware of, don't except that in any job or that factory job without really going to this source of information and trying to bet it. there's a lot of ways now, since cell phone usage is just exploding all over the world, that we can be smart about how we use technology to empower women to protect themselves. i think that prevention is going to be a major pillar of this whole policy that we are developing, and we are looking for good ideas, we are looking for good outcomes. and as part of the qddr that i can mentioned, you know, two years ago that we're not in evident men and the state department and usaid, we have to be quick on the evaluation. that's something that raj shah and don steinberg and their team at a.i.d. have really zero in on. how do we get more real-time
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information so we can support what works, and, frankly, don't longer support what doesn't work, so that we can shift the scarce resources somewhere else. i think that we know for sure if that making changes in laws that give women an economic stake protects women. it is a prevention strategy. so that is, you know, 660-70% of the small holder farmers in the world are women in africa, asia, latin america, and many, in many places, particularly in africa, if a woman's husband dies, if her father dies, she cannot inherit the property that she has spent years working on an been the primary harvester of the crops. well, changing that gives women a status that protects them, to be honest, and gives them a state that is recognizable. if a woman shows up and says, i
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owned land in this province and they want to be part of helping to resolve this conflict, that carries a higher status than if you show up and say i'm a market late and i sell vegetables that somebody else growth. so all of this is part of the cultural mildew that we have to understand better, and i think we're getting smarter about it and we hope that prevention will always be right up there with, among our other strategic priorities. thank you. [applause]
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[applause] [applause] >> today, c-span continues its coverage of campaign 2012. on this be the finnish cancer primer will bring you live rallies of republican presidential candidates. mitt romney will speak to supporters at noon eastern. and later, jon huntsman will be at a rally scheduled for 7 p.m. eastern. you can see these campaign events later today on a campaigning network, c-span. >> if we begin now, to match our policies with our ideas, then i believe that it is yet possible that we will come to admire this country not simply because we were born here, but because of the kind of great and good land that you and i want it to be, at that together we have made. that is my hope. that is my reason for seeking the presidency of the united
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states. >> as candidates campaign for president this year, we look back at 14 many ran for the office and lost. go to our website, to see video of the contenders who had a lasting impact on american politics. >> the leadership of this nation has a clear and immediate challenge to go to work effectively and go to work immediately. to restore proper respect for law and order in this land, and not just prior to election day either. >> these young people when they get out of this wonderful university will have difficulty finding a job. we've got to clean this mess up, lead this country in good shape, pass on the american dream to them. >> go to our website, >> now, commerce secretary john bryson cites the latest job report released on friday and talks about his departments report that stresses the role of the federal government in in
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spurring innovation and job creation. he spoke at an event on u.s. competitiveness hosted by the center for american progress. this is about an hour and 50 minutes. >> thank you all for joining us. we are excited to secretary of commerce john bryson here discussing the issue of competitiveness. as you all know competitiveness is about building and economy that is fit for the 21st century in a world where we are competing and trying to win with new competitors, each and every day. it's also about building an economy that works for everyone, not just the privileged few. and we note that the obama administration has made competitiveness a policy priority since the beginning of the administration, and has really geared up in the last year, and a special with secretary bryson's leadership now at commerce. because of it's important, they have also done much work in this area. a year ago my colleague john podesta, sarah wartell, released
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a report calling for aim more cord and copperheads approach to u.s. competitiveness. so the american worker, businesses and families to prosper in a more competitive world. they let out a blueprint for u.s. competitiveness at the top of the national agenda and putting the country down the path to achieving it. it was a year ago that president obama also signed the american mp3 authorization act into law. the act is a major achievement in u.s. competitiveness policy. it authorized significant investments in programs of the national science foundation, the department of energy, of course the department of commerce all in order to assure americans competitiveness but it keeps america on a path of leadership in science and technology and education, ensure that we are doing what's right for our economy in a global world in the next several years, but also for decades to come. as part of the compete act,
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congress as the sector of commerce brison to conduct a detailed analysis of the structural challenges to our nation's engine of innovation, job creation and growth. known as the can teach report the study is a first of its kind look into the biggest challenges our economy is facing as was the opportunities we have today. the center is our to secretary bryson here to unveil the report and present its key findings today. we are also joined by several members of the innovation advisory board who made his report possible. the advisory board is guided the secretary throughout the study and has provided incredible guidance on this issue, and they're all made up of leaders in this issue that many of us have heard from for many years. among them it's my pleasure to welcome you at the center the founder and president of information technology and innovation foundation, rebecca bagley, president and ceo of nortech, jim claims comprising of west virginia university, abby joseph cohen, president of
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global market is a to come and seen as a sachs. larry cohen, president of the communications of the communications workers of america, art levinson, chairman of apple, james, director of mckinsey and company, and mckenzie and technical institute. battalion olson ortega, president of e.g., formally the equilibrium group. cam, chairman of clear street inc., julie, president and ceo of welch talent, stephen, ceo and director of u.s. science and and i am coming to the last one, representing the advisory board, lucy sanders, national center for women and science technology. i know we all are looking for 10 more about the procedure board and i will turn the floor over to secretary bryson in a moment but let me say a few words about what we're doing today. we have a different and interesting for me. we will have a panel led by
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sarah wartell in a few minutes. after secretary bryson's remarks but and then we're going to have something of a fair with a lot of members, of our advisory group and information about different outlets of the compete act following appendix i hope you will stay for all of that. it's my pleasure now to introduce secretary of commerce john bryson. he was sworn in just a few months ago but he brings nearly three decades of experience in business to the commerce department. was really an innovative business leader leading an effort around green energy and ensuring that we have, we're taking advantage of new economic issues. and he's been a real leader in trying to find this new area of innovation in our economy. specifically in green energy. and so i can think of no one better at to talk about
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america's competitiveness than the person who really leads our efforts and leads competitiveness for the present an secretary of commerce john bryson. [applause] >> good morning and thank you very much, neera. it is a special treat really to be able to present this report, the advisory group has played such a large role, advisory board members, 1 11 other 15 are with us this warning. i just met with them, huge contribution. really thoughtful, diverse backgrounds coming together around this competitiveness issue. let me also say just at the outset it's a pleasure to do this at the center for american progress. john podesta will remember, we talked over the dinner me a couple weeks ago, so i had to go to the confirmation process.
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i've never been in the federal government before. i was naïve in the extreme but i've no idea it would take what it takes to go through this confirmation process. maybe the fact that i had some of the things i've done over the year, some people thought weren't so great, and so it took a little while to go through the confirmation process. but it is a real treat. it's an honor to be made secretary of the commerce. and it is a special honor i will say also to work with my colleague, becky blank, who really was the lead at the department of putting this report together pixel i am thrilled. so my time is something like foremost in and i've been through this, this is really, really important i think for us to think, consistently, very hard, and hard in a sustained way in a longer-term way that has been traditionally are in the federal government about how we strengthened our competitiveness around the
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world. it's critically important and i will go through my remarks but let me just say perhaps you know this is in some ways also another kind of special i was a positive day, good news day, because the report on jobs is out. and maybe you have seen that. but this, the report now that is in the month of december, 200,000, 200,000 net new jobs. that's not just the private sector job increases that are often reported. that is the net number. after increases in the private sector with some offsets and loss of jobs in the public sector. so 200,000, and now we have six months in a row in which the numbers have been counted each month, 100,000 more jobs in each the last six months. so you put this together, and that for example, is the highest
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rate of job growth since 2006 over the last half year. so we've all been very, very focus on jobs for american people. we can't, we can't go forward without them. and so this is another step. there's a lot left to do, but in the competitiveness report, this is a kind of special moment for us to go through the elements of competitiveness going forward. an element of which is having the kind of economy that gives all of us, particularly our young people, and then particularly our children, to follow them, to have the opportunity, the kind of job opportunities that we in our generation have had. so let me jump into the report. a year ago as you know, the president signed into law the american competes reauthorization act, a
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bipartisan bill that builds upon the 2007 american competes act that called on the federal government to invest in our nation's long-term future in the areas of science education, and through increased funding for innovation and through research and development. particular i would like to acknowledge the leadership of senate commerce committee chairman jay rockefeller. i assume the members are not here, but staff members are, and the people played a huge role. and ranking member kay bailey hutchinson, senator lamar alexander as well as the house science committee chairman mark gordon, many thanks to all of them for leading and renewing this vital piece of legislation. legislation allows our nation to look inwardly at our economic model, find areas of improvement
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and tracked down solutions. among other requirements, the law instructed the commerce department to study the countries economic competitiveness in innovative capacity. that's what we've done. the study was no easy task. i would like to ask all manners of the commerce who worked on drafting this work to please stand and be recognized. [applause] and thank you. so thank you. now, the topic of this report is certainly a matter of pivotal, pivotal importance. our ability to innovate as a nation will determine what kind of economy, what kind of country our children and grandchildren will inherit, and whether it's a
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country that builds and holds the same progress, promised for them, as it did for our parents and grandparents. so let's talk a little about the importance of innovation and competitiveness. history tells us that what happens when we don't innovate, when we're not focus on boosting economic competitiveness, when tax dollars and manpower are not wisely invested in good schools or new information technologies. it impacts jobs and it impacts economic growth. in fact, a recent report from information technology and innovation foundation concluded that no advanced economy in the world, except italy, not sure
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that says a lot, none except italy have done less than the united states to improve the country's economic competitive position over the previous decade. and that's reflected, as we know, in the lives of many american families today. even before the recession, most families saw since 2000 saw their wages stagnate or decline while prices for some of the key necessities of life, health, gas, tuition, all went out. so america's challenge isn't just to strengthen the recovery, it's too late a new foundation for sustainable long-term economic growth. and the reports findings, report proposes and invest a strategy that makes sense, a path forward will lay down that critical
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foundation. innovation remains the key driver of competitiveness and job growth, and this report looks to the past to examine the factors that have helped unleash the tremendous innovative potential of our private sector. the study has found three major areas to target for syria's strong federal support. first, basic research. while private citizens and businesses are the top source of new ideas, the government plays a key role in funding for basic research that underlies their innovations. basic research is under provided by the private sector. governments around the world are recognizing the need for public support at universities and research institutions. the u.s. has a proud tradition of supporting the work of federal and university labs.
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and it has helped change our world. the internet, satellite communications, and aeronautics, for example, are among those job creating advances that would not have been possible without the use of wisely spent federal tax dollars. but the challenge now is in our energies have dropped off. in 1980, the federal, funded more than 70% of basic research, 70%. most of that went to universities and university-based federal research centers. since then the government share of basic research funding has fallen from that 70% to 57%. and that's a trend that just must be reversed.
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what's more, the government must take an active role in protecting the intellectual property of entrepreneurs through patents, copyrights and other enforcement mechanisms. after all, intellectual property and innovation keep our entire economic engine churning. when companies are more confident that their ideas will be protected, and more incentive to pursue advances that push costs down, and with that employment up. so then the second pillar in the report is education. for the last two centuries, america has led the world in pioneering public education, first in elementary schools, then by providing public high schools throughout the country, and finally by establishing a system of public universities that were broadly available to all citizens. we know now that highly skilled
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workers boost innovation and economic competitiveness. assuring that our children have the skills employers need for the jobs of tomorrow requires dedicated government attention and resources at the state, local and federal levels. of critical imports are the science, technology, engineering and math a medic fills, the so-called stem fields. in 2009, about 12.8% of u.s. college graduates, 12.8% were in stem fields, far fewer than the 44% of foreign students in the united states majoring in a s.t.e.m. fields.
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significant economic competitors, such as south korea, with 26.3% and germany with 24.5%, are on the long list of countries producing a much higher percentage of the s.t.e.m. graduates than our 12.8%. that must change. and then the third area of investigation, of investment that we need is infrastructure. the infrastructure needed to support a modern economy relies on publicly provided resources. this goes beyond traditional infrastructure like highways, rail lines and ports. though those developers to help businesses compete by opening up and keeping costs low. but the competes report finds that we must do more to go out the truly modern electrical grid, broadband internet access, both urban and rural communities. here in america, 68% of
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households have adopted broadband, and an almost eight fold increase since 2001. and yet, 68% adoption rate still leaves about a third of american homes cut off from the digital economy. it's worth noting that in particular, small and medium-sized enterprises have benefited hugely on the internet. those smes with a strong online presence created more than twice the number of jobs as firms not on the web, creating 2.6 jobs for each one a laminated. -- eliminated. so, education, innovation and infrastructure, these are the areas where we cannot afford to cut the role of government. indeed, investment in these
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areas will lead to a more competitive economy and higher growth. unfortunately this report unearths the sad truth that federal funding for basic research, education and infrastructure has simply failed to keep pace with economic growth, and the innovative performance of the united states has severely slipped during the past decade. so, the reports solutions. to reverse these trends, the report finds the following actions are necessary, we must increase and sustain the levels of funding for basic research i the federal government. and in addition, we need a simplified hand and extensive r&d credit. one that towards firms were
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taking additional r&d, not just activity that would have occurred even without that credit. we must follow president obama's lead to bring government support for r&d back to a level not seen since the kennedy administration, thus reversing a decades long decline in federal funding of that basic research. and as to education, we said we must invest in the skills and knowledge necessary to compete in an increasingly competitive worldwide economy where other countries are now surpassing us in the percentage of young people with college degrees, something as simple as that. ongoing and new administrator initiatives are addressing these challenges by making college is more affordable, spurring classroom innovation at all
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levels, and expanding the size and quality of s.t.e.m. teacher ranks. to succeed in the global economy, government must encourage students and workers toward continued s.t.e.m. education. and then for infrastructure, it is clear that we have to invest in 21st century networks, including fostering access to high speed internet for citizens and businesses no matter where they are located. and the federal government must continue its stride forward towards a smart electricity grid and a robust network of broadband internet access. and then a fourth area of the economic competitors mentioned in the competes i think definitely deserves our attention. a flourishing manufacturing sector in the u.s. is crucial to
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our competitive strength, and will continue to be a key source of the economic growth and job creation. manufacturing pace-average wages, provides the bulk of u.s. exports, contribute substantially to our r&d, and protects national security. manufacturing show in our economy isn't going away anytime soon. in 2009, manufacturing made up 11-point to% of gdp, and 9.1% of total u.s. unemployment. directly -- over two-thirds of all industrial r&d in america is done by manufacturing companies.
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ultimately, without a strong manufacturing base, we simply can't create enough good jobs to sustain a strong middle class. and without a strong middle class, we cannot be a strong country. if we build it here and sell it everywhere, we can become the world's unquestioned greatest economic power yet again. so, in conclusion, this administration does not believe government has all the answers, because believe it has a role to play in creating the conditions that make inspiration, innovation and invention more likely to happen. this means providing support through the government the private sector needs to grow, to create new products and
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services, and most importantly, to generate jobs that offer good wages. ultimately, job growth is the metric that is most important. and long-term job growth will only occur in a world where entrepreneurs and researchers find it easy to pursue new ideas and to turn them into new products and successful new businesses. these are the building blocks for fulfilling america's truest potential, and the conclusions in our competes act report can make that promise a reality. i had hoped to be able to take a few questions. i regret, unfortunately, i need to lead immediately to attend a meeting over at the white house, but i'm delighted in meeting you in a very capable hands, my deputy secretary, dr. rebecca
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blank who i introduced privacy, blank who i introduced privacy, and also aneesh chopra from the white house was with us this morning. iq. thank you very much. [applause] >> and now i would like to welcome up to the panel sarah rosen wartell who is our executive vice president for policy as well as aneesh chopra, rebecca blank, to talk about the findings of the report in more detail. and i think you'll be able to actually also take some questions about the report as well. thanks so much. it all right, here we go. [applause] first of all, i should say that for the people standing in the back, we have now dedicated nine seats up in the front. celeb encourage anyone who wants to sit, encouraging but wants to
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come up and make himself comfortable, please come join us. i'm going to go pick up what i left him a seat. let me go do that. >> so, by a we do some rearranging, let me spend a very quick time, invitation did more detail but let me remind you we have with us today. as the sector mr. chairman the acting deputy secretary of commerce, becky blank is here. she arrived during -- >> can you hear up? >> can you speak up? >> try this. there we go. sorry about that. my apologies. becky was previously the dean of the public policy school at the university of michigan, and i had the pleasure of working with her when she was previously at the council of economic advisers to president clinton. sitting at the far end, aneesh
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chopra. aneesh escort the chief technology officer of enough states, also serves as assistant to the president and associate director of technology, previously he was the secretary of technology for the commonwealth of virginia. and he was in the private sector as well as the advisory board company. finally, we have james, the director of the mckinsey global institute which is mackenzie's business and economics research arm. he was also one of the members as we mentioned here, earlier, the secretaries advisory board, and he will be as part of our advisory board fair at the end of this panel as well. so i want to know what we'll do is take and keep things for the i'm going to ask two questions of each of the panelists, and then we'll take a few questions from the audience, and then to allow people to have a more fulsome conversation we will divide everybody up in the room
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so that different folks will be at different manners of the advisory committee that only these folks but the folks are on the advisory to me are here with us will be in different corners of able to talk about key elements of the strategy that was developed. becky, let me start with you though. today's his job and we had good news on that. the conversations that we have about competitiveness and in a conversation that we have almost every day all the time about jobs, wages and economic opportunity and what's happening to the middle class in america, those two conversations seem to happen in different rooms sometimes. they don't always get very well-connected. but i think the competitiveness issues that were talked about here today are related to our economic opportunities in the middle class. how does the report talk about that and how do you see the connection? >> so, i agree with you that those conversations take place in different rooms, and they shouldn't. in many ways they are very, very closely interrelated. let me run the causality both
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ways. on the one hand, if you don't have a competitive economy with strong and stable economic growth you are never going to have any chance to address any of the inequality problems or the problems facing the current middle class. you must have a competitive economy in order to address some of those issues. on the other hand, if you don't have some degree of stability and promise of economic towards people of the middle class or people in the lower end of the income distribution, he have a great deal of difficulty generating the political support for the agenda that this report lays out on competitiveness. because of people do not see that they are going to gain from some of the investments that we talk about in this report, if they think those gains are going to go to a different group of folks, they are simply not going to support these types of investments. i think -- the other issue is the education issue. that one of the things that really concerns me about the fiber occasion that you're seeing intrinsic inequality is that there are large numbers
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people who don't quite see the point of college education, much less stay in education that we talk about your insides are engineered or technological fields. they don't feel that there is to capture and that someone else will be doing that. one of the things that a strong competitive growing economy does is it gives people incentive to capture onto that growth to see what it is you get by going to college, by being serious about the work you do, and in particular by pursuing some of the faster growing fields which are the fields that would be the high technology fields go ahead. >> if i could add one other comment to reinforce what the secretary subscribes, there's another straightforward economic reasons why it matters, which is it helps address and tries the economy. if you keep in mind over the last two decades, something like 70% of the u.s. gdp growth has come from household spending. so if you take out the ability of those households what
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consumers been, most of which lives in the middle class, put a big dance into the aggregate demand and drivers of economic growth of u.s. economy so it is important. >> that's a good transition to linux question to you which is about american competitors competitively with other countries to the secretary went through we are kind of used to hearing these, sort of statistics about america not being at the top of whatever list of competitiveness measure you want to use. how are we doing relative to others? and more importantly, are we fated as an advanced development economy that is further ahead in many ways to be on the downside of those rankings, or do we have a chance to be able to sustain a high rate of competitiveness even as other countries are rising? >> it's important to keep in mind, if you look historically back to the end of the second world war, the u.s. economy has been by far the most productive economy and most attractive economy on the planet.
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i think that's still the case. however, something has begun to change, which is other countries have begun to get better as well. they are not sitting still. and after that is a good thing for the economy because when you take people out of poverty around the world, that's a good thing. but it puts pressure on the united states to stay ahead. and i think that becomes important to keep in mind, of all the factors that affect u.s. competitiveness or any country's competitiveness, where we stand at each of those. and i think there are many of those but let me emphasize five in particular. these really matter. number one, you always want to have an economy that has the most productive, most globally competitive companies in an participating injury coming. i think that lead you down the path, how do you make that attractive, how do you think about global taxes on, how do you think about regulations et cetera to make sure you have those companies. number to come you always want to make sure you have got a
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disproportionate share of the innovators and on to produce in your economy. so how do you make sure that is the case? third point which is the always want to make sure you have the most skilled and the most productive workers in your economy because otherwise it gets reduced to a debate and the fight around who has the cheapest labor. but as launch of the most skilled, most productive labor it helps you compete. fourth, an important point is the always want to make sure that the fact you are the globally trade sector, talking about manufacturing year, sectors that are open to global competition. you have those community most competitive and the most innovative sector of the form. and this gets down the path of think about manufacturing in particular but there are a few others. and then lastly, i think the secretary made this point, you want to the biggest reservoir of
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research in r&d because that creates a long-term foundation for competitiveness. and allows you to compete. .. >> for decades we've dominated that industry. now, on some measures one could argue there are higher adoption rates on mobile technology in some of the asian countries. so one would look at that ask say, okay, well, we have to juice up our adoption rate if we're going to compete. but if you peel back the onion and think about the five frameworks that james mentioned,
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let's just take this in its elements. america used to invent the underlying technologies that fuel this wireless revolution. you all remember in your mind bell labs. 35,000 engineers. i grew up in jersey. dad worked in the bell labs community. and that's a shadow of itself today. if you looked at the actual manufacturing of wireless communications infrastructure, not a single one is headquartered in the u.s. anymore. not one. and because of the collapse of bell labs and the private sector's investment in some of the r when we talk about r&d, it's not clear where the resources are to invest in the next generation of wireless. now, when i talk about the benchmarks of korea or other countries, you could argue that, okay, we have a current model for how wireless operates. but you know what? america will also be the first country to have run out of
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spectrum. where there's challenge, there's opportunity or whatever that saying is -- [laughter] crisis in opportunity. should say which country on the planet will best understand how do we turn a scarce resource, spectrum, into one of abundance through technological innovation? and you you would say homeland,e united states. [laughter] however, you would say where's the fuel that would compel or propel that reality to happen? well, there's no, there's not a significant private investment in the r, and there isn't as much in the case of wireless particularly, not a lot of u.s. current nsf, etc., funding in this area. in fact, some of the ironies are some of the professors in our studies say, you know, we're getting monies from overseas companies to fund our research. so the president did something very interesting and, i would argue, innovative. he said, look, there's bipartisan consensus to promote kind of a new market-making
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mechanism, a voluntary incentive auction that would allow us to repurpose some of the existing spectrum that may be used for a different economic purpose that has better value in mobile broadband. so we've got this bipartisan consensus moving that says let's get some tools in the hands of the fcc to auction off some spectrum. and that will throw off new money, money that's not in the legacy budget. let's take a portion of that to informs in wireless -- invest in wireless innovation so that we can, in fact, expand the american pass capacity to achieve these opportunities and create the new industries associated with spectrum policy in a world of sharing, in a world of capacity constraints. and it's an amazing policy that has had bipartisan support at least in the senate, we're working towards that now in the house, a policy that actually reduces the deficit, invests in this wireless future and makes good on a policy objective to use that wireless technology to help our first responders, a win/win/win in terms of the
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economy and in terms of the operational needs. and let's see if congress will make good and actually deliver on this. but that's, i think, an example of this story of where we can lead again in areas where we've had historical prominence. >> so let me ask you because that's a perfect segway. that story takes one -- i think of it as kind of a piece of our infrastructure. >> yes. 21st century -- >> right. a piece of our 23rur and says that the federal government has a role to play in insuring just as we did with the highway system, it's a different kind of role. we're not building it all ourselves. but we are going to have to make sure that infrastructure gets built. the report lays out four other areas in addition to that, two or three other areas, the next gen air traffic control, cloud computing, smart grid. >> yes. >> talk about not so much where we are technologically on each of them, but the mechanisms by which government plays a role in a 21st century way to insure
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that the public and private sector together build the infrastructure that we need. >> so i'll just do a quick bullet on these because i could go on for hours, this is a fascinating subject. [laughter] what's amazing about next gen is making judgments. so the airline industry has already made investments in, essentially, gps navigation, okay? so you can land planes -- today planes land in kind of a choppy way. they're told, okay, get to this 35,000 feet, wait, hang, travel around the airport whereas the technological capacity now exists on almost all domestic airlines to, basically, push the auto land, and you can just glide in with gps navigation tools. unbelievably efficient in terms of reducing our dependence on excess jet fuel. you could save money on fuel, reduce pollution, all happy and goodness. it is a permitting process for each and every route for us to
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say, okay, if we're going to change the landing, we need to make sure that, you know, it meets all the environmental this and policies for that and noise. so we made a commitment, the president said we need to make some accelerations here. we included next gen on our 21st century permitting efficiency initiative. there's now a dashboard on the white house web site where we've done a deep dive on the houston metro plex to say we're going to cut in half the amount of processing time to achieve the permits. so we could accelerate next gen. what's fashion fascinating about this, it's the private sector informing entirely -- investing entirely -- the private sector's overwhelming. no net new r and k, if you will, to -- r&d, if you will, there's a little bit, but not significant, if you l. it's private investment, so the tool is permitting. on the issue of smart grid, we have an unbelievable opportunity. we're going to, by the end of the recovery act investments,
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we're going to double the amount of meters, data-driven infrastructure that allows them to bring in other sources of energy and manage anything a more efficient way, critical for the future as we see it reducing dependence on foreign oil. there we did have some initial capital deployment, but overwhelmingly the business case for smart grid relies on state-regulated utilities. and the judgment in the policy framework is let's share best practices. what works, so that states can make the right judgments in a collaborative way to accelerate these investments. and you're seeing now a dramatic increase in the number of interests from the states to move forward in the role of smart grid. so there it's about collaboration as a policy lever as much as anything else. and finally, you mentioned the last one was in cloud computing and data, it is unbelievable. the government can lead by example. we can be a lead purchaser. so we've shifted to a cloud-first policy, and we have embraced cloud computing, and
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you're going to see a lot more of our activity in big data, a lot of this was talking about big data for the 21st century economy, and we are both potentially buyers of cloud -- so seeing some of the new marketing opportunities as well as suppliers of data. data is the rocket fuel for a lot of this. it's the new infrastructure. and who has the most data on the nation's health care system, on the nation's educational system -- >> our government. >> and environmental system. you got it, people, and we're releasing it in machine-readable form so entrepreneurs can grab that data and build resources on top of it. >> i think if you look at the major technological innovations that have really advance inside this country, almost all of them have involved some mix of federal and private sector. so you look at the railroads. i mean, yes, it was the private sector companies that built them, but there was huge amounts of federal subsidies. same thing with the canal system.
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if you look at medical advances, huge investments in research that's going into universities and research labs which has been feeding directly into all sorts of private sector use. and, you know, what we're talking about doing here as we go forward with new innovations, you know, it's radical if you talk about the innovations, but it's not radical if you are talking about what's the role of government. the role of government as -- has always been to step in places where you need investment of the sort the private sector at least up front when the technologies are new will not make. >> one thing that aneesh just said, i think for those of us who are not the administration and kind of look in the private sector, one of the things that is important to competitiveness is regulation and the regulatory environment. and i'm not talking about changing regulations, but simply making them go faster. so if you look at what is it that other countries have done around permitting or having approval for drugs, some of my innovation board members here
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feel very passionately about this. that's one of the things where the u.s. has kind of slipped. you can get approval for things on the same standards in other countries much faster. and i think that has to change. that's one thing. i think the other thing that's also worth emphasizing is this idea that the federal government or at least the public sector can also use a lot of these technologies and transform itself. i mean, we know that health care and education are some of the not so productive sectors of the economy. [laughter] we've had this debate, aneesh. but i think in many ways the government can also be a customer or at least an absorber of these technologies in a way that stimulates demand and drives growth. >> that's great. i want to ask you to follow up on that point a little bit. so last year mckinsey global institute did a report on job creation needs in the economy. it was called an economy that works, and i commend it to folks. i think it was really interesting. um, and it talked about the opportunities for job creation in some particular sectors in the economy. you mentioned health care,
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business services, leisure ands hospitality and tourism, construction, retail and some particular subsectors of manufacturing, things like chemicals, transportation, um, and some commodities and the like. and, um, other countries have this very explicit focus on sort of sectors of the economy. america has been traditionally, and i think remains, reluctant to have a sectoral investment strategy per se. but there are ways that you can think about the important sectors of the economy and insure that the infrastructure for their competitiveness are in place. and i'm just curious how you think about the opportunity for, um, for this sectoral analysis to play a role in a competitiveness strategy. >> well, i think it's fundamental because the competitiveness question as well as the growth prospect of the sectors are actually very different.
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i mean, there are sectors that look very robust and other sectors that don't look as robust. so if you're trying to solve for jobs, which is a very important issue to solve for, you do have to take a central view. but i think it's important also, one other quick thing on the jobs question in particular which is i think it's a mistake to think of the jobs issue just driven by the recession. right? the economy already had a relatively weak job engine even right up to before the crisis or the recession. that was already the lowest job creation decade for many, many years. i think it's important to recognize some of the structural changes that have occurred in the economy, and a lot of those have to do with what's going on at the sector level, they have to do with skills mismatch between the skills that are growing and the sectors where people have skills. there's a mismatch. there are mismatches between what sectors need in terms of skills versus what's available. so back to the education issue. there are also mismatches
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geographically, where the jobs happen to be is not necessarily where the people actually are. one of the things that's quite striking about the u.s. economy, we talk a lot about it being a very flexible, highly mobile work force. not so much anymore. it used to be, that's certainly true if you go back to 1945 all the way up until the '90s. that was certainly the case. one in five americans moved cities, zip code, whatever. not so much anymore. it's more like one in ten. so there are all these mismatches that require that you take a look at the sector level, at the skill level and even at the regional and geographic level to think about how we make, how do we solve for that. now, what's interesting that some other countries have done a relatively better job of that. germany comes to mind. it's a lot easier to get kind of the market information about what skills are companies hiring for, where are the jobs, which sectors are growing. that is meant to be more available than it is here. and look at the outcomes. it's quite striking when you
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look at this recession, for example, on a gdp basis. germany actually had a deeper recession than we did, actually, and yet they actually grew jobs in the same period. where the less deep recessions -- still very deep, but less deep than germany, we lost a lot more jobs. >> yeah, go ahead. >> i want to push back slightly on the notion that the u.s. is awkward on the sector issue. if you constrained your view to top down picking winners and losers, absolutely. that's lame. we would not go there. however, i think what you'll hear, read in this report is that in a bottom-up vision you can be very thoughtful about sector-specific bottlenecks and opportunities. so allow me to share the health care example for purposes of this discussion. the american health care system today is overwhelmingly built on an incentive structure that encourages more volume versus one that emphasizes a value for
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dollars spent. and, therefore, the american health care industry has been designed to reinforce that which it has been incentivized to do. if you shift the model to paying for outcomes or for value, one could unleash some of the productivity opportunities that james has written about in the past. and in the same spirit of the scarcity issue on wireless spectrum, i hopefully believe we'll be the first nation on the planet to tackle what does the health care infrastructure or economy look like in a world of reincentives around outcomes and value. and you'll see a lot more products and services that could also be exported around the world. therefore, it's an industry of the future. you might call that a sector. now, what is it that we can do in a bottom-up philosophy? what's 21st century infrastructure? we have already doubled the doctors and hospitals in america that are using electronic health records, and we are going to rock and roll forward because
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the president's recovery act had even more -- i would call that infrastructure investment. number two, we acknowledged that if you want to get to value instead of volume, this is a question of numerators and denominators. we know what we spend. we don't know what we spend for. well, how do you measure outputs, brother? how are we measuring outputs? not well! [laughter] what happened in the affordable care act? one of the most powerful provisions of the affordable care act empowered medicare to release its data for the purposes of allowing the private sector to publish quality reports on hospitals and doctors. for a whopping 50 grand -- we just released the reg, did you see it? >> i did see it. >> it's pretty cool. >> it is pretty cool. [laughter] >> for $50,000 a company, private sector, can consume that data to help us define the
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outputs in hospital care and medical care, physician care. and that has never been done before. so now we have data as infrastructure, doctors and hospitals that have i.t. systems, and a whole new industry ready to go to combine a and b to empower new products and services. face time video chats between doctors and patients that are reimbursed in a different way, text message alerts to make sure mom, grandma is taking her meds. and the doctor just said often we play a role offering seed capital. in november medicare and cms, i should say to be specific, announced a $1 billion innovation challenge in increments of 1-$30 million. so small grants, bottom up. start up america like get entrepreneurs moving. if you have a breakthrough idea that will shift the health care system to value over volume and
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you need that initial kick, welcome. come on in. we're going to bring applications in, and by march have the first tranche of investments out to see what that future will look like. that's an example of bottom-up sectoral winning strategies in line with everything you'll read in this report. and i believe the net effect of this will be that the products and services we invent in this new value-driven health care system will be exported all over the world and will lead to dramatic increases in jobs and, oh, by the way, lowering our health care costs to free up more productivity capacity for other sectors of the economy. so win/win/win if you put this together. >> so -- >> am i right, james? >> no, actually, i agree. one of the things that's quite striking -- >> sorry. >> that's all right. [inaudible conversations] we have a successor when you're done. [laughter] >> no, no, what is the
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policymakers in the government can do, i think it comes down to basically four kinds of things. one i'd describe as smart policy making. one of the things about smart policy making is recognizing that the world has changed. as a country we now have to compete for all kinds of things; talent, labor, companies, all of that. smart policy making. second, i think you have to recognize the kinds of public/private partnerships that aneesh is talking about because the government has assets and capabilities, but that can be taken advantage of by entrepreneurs and innovators, so how do you open that up? i think the last thing is just investment straight up. there's so many areas where there are market failures, investing in long-term r&d where no one else is going to do it, so the federal government has to do it. so how do you identify those areas where you're going to do those smart investments. >> i think the federal government also plays an important role in terms of the public goods aspect of the data, you know, of the infrastructure, of the tools that, um, the private sector needs. >> absolutely.
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>> with this as well. >> absolutely. >> so, becky, i want wanted to k you particularly about one of those sectors that the secretary talked about in his remarks, which was manufacturing. in the mckinsey jobs report from last year when they looked at the potential for job growth opportunity to kind of meet the need we have has an economy to get us back to where we were, manufacturing does -- on the one hand, in mckinsey's view, does not look like a great growth opportunity. but whether it remains a strong, stable, important sector of our economy is sort of an open question at this point. it could continue to decline, or if we focus on some key areas, could remain with a different mix of manufacturing, an important part of our economy. talk a little bit about what this report has to say about manufacturing and how we make the better of those two paths become reality. >> so, i mean, i think it's quite clear that we need some manufacturing sector to our economy, and we could argue
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about how big it needs to be, but, um, it's an incredibly important sector. as, um, the secretary noted, it's one of the major producers of exports, um, and it's generally high-wage sector. so if you're worried about some of the wage and inequality issues, manufacturing looks good. higher wages but higher benefits, all sorts of things. um, so the question is, you know, what is the future, how do you move forward to try to stabilize moring. and on the one hand, productivity has grown enormously over time, and that is part of the reason it shed jobs, everyone recognizes that. but it's also clear that the forces that james talks about where other countries have gotten smarter and faster and more competitive have also affected manufacturing. so particularly in the 2000s, there are a number of very good economic research studies that simply say we have lost jobs through, you know, by being less competitive than some other areas in the manufacturing sector. it's not just a matter of increasing productivity, it's a matter of losing out to more aggressive and more competitive
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sectors in other parts of the world. so, you know, why is that a problem? that's a problem just because this is a good sector, it's also a problem because if you care about innovation, and i think all of us believe ideas, innovation, smart people are what's going to drive this economy, you have to, you know, in order to innovate, you also have to produce. you cannot imagine having just the research and development labs in this country and not having the facility that lets you produce the prototypes, you know? there's a reason why the researchers are often located very close to the production facility. they want to experiment. they want to see how it works in realtime and then go back and tinker and try again. so, um, you know, to be a top-line innovator you've got to also have real production facilities here on the ground. now, that doesn't mean the u.s. needs every single sector in manufacturing represented here. clearly, there are some areas where we are less competitive and have less comparative advantage, and i think if you want to talk about what are the sectors that we need to really
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compete hard on and we need to keep in this country, you go into the sort of analysis that james is doing, you know, looking at very sector specific, what are the skills needed, what does this do -- you know, how does it mix with the other cluster of activities going on in the economy? in general, you know, it is the higher technology type manufacturing, the high value-added manufacturing that i think, clearly, this country wants to capture and maintain in a long-term, stable basis. and, um, you know, doing that, um, goes right back to all the things we've been talking about. it means you've got to have the infrastructure to ship goods, you've got to have the work force that is going to be skilled. that group of industries and sectors needs. and, you know, you've got to have the innovative capacity that does the, um, building blocks at universities and research labs and other places, um, that manufacturing then takes and turns into products. >> so let me, i want to close with this group with -- open to anyone -- want to talk briefly about r&d and its relationship to manufacturing and more
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generally to this competitive strategy. aneesh, you might want to talk about public sector r&d, but i'd like the other panelists to talk about private sector r&d, and i'll do a brief cap plug while i'm at it. this afternoon we are releasing a report by laura tyson who has had an illustrious career and is a member of the president's jobs council which she and her co-author have analyzed the u.s. r&d tax credit and its centrality in creating these public benefits that come from the larger public benefits that come from encouraging private sector r&d investment. um, and so we can all look for that on the web. um, the tax credit is one of the r&d pieces that's mentioned in this report. just talk very briefly about the role that r&d plays and what the government's role is in encouraging both public and private r&d. whoever wants to start. >> there's no -- and the report goes deep on this, but i'll just share it from the i.t. standpoint that there's no
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question that if you looked at the billion dollar segments of the i.t. economy, nearly all of them originate with some federal r&d investment. you can even look at companies like google that were born out of a plant on libraries indexing or even the work on the mosaic browser. so nearly every subsegment of the i.t. economy originates -- berkeley has this beautiful chart that actually maps back which of the key subsegments of the billion dollar plus industries in i.t. originated from federal r&d investments. so category a, continuing that nsf engine to cede kind of basic activity does have, in fact, over time -- and this is the long-term point that james made -- an impact on the economy. we have applied benefits, and no question in anyone's mind that darpa has been a phenomenal resource for the commercialization benefit of the work that they are doing, the internet, gps, stealth, you name it.
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these technologies were very, very much critical and were guided and directed by the wonderful work at darpa which, by the way, is why you see the president so committed both in terms of investing in areas like r&d which is already in just start-up years has generated significant private capital follow-on investment because so many of the innovations have already hit some of their key milestones. so the applied piece is certainly there. and the third tranche is the tax credit policies. you probably should comment more on that. so in the basic area we've seen direct benefits especially in i.t. in areas of the applied work, there's been spillover, and then i think the tax policies in this area. the president laid out a very ambitious goal to get america's collective, that is public and private, r&d investments back to where it was and exceeding in many cases investments in the future, and he's been very committed, you will always note we prioritize the research and
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development investments. it's based on this evidence base. >> yeah. the only thing i'd add to what aneesh has described is to, again, emphasize the long term and again, the fact that it's usually the long term where you tend to have market failures in terms of who invests in it. r&d tax credits, i think, are very helpful because it gets companies to think long term perhaps more than they otherwise would. but when you think about long-term r&d, especially the r, i think secretary blank made the report that it comes back to you're trying to create public goods on which innovators and others will take advantage of and build these amazing companies. and that really happens in government labs, in universities. and when companies have been given the right incentives to think about the long term much more than they otherwise would. that's where the role of r&d tax credits comes in, above and beyond what they would normally do. >> all right, great. with that, i think what we're
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going to do is we have a few minutes for questions from the audience. please, if you would, wait until billy comes to you with the mic. i'll call on you, and i will also ask, if you would, to identify your name and the organization that you're with. so, billy, why don't you come on back here. first the woman with the vest, i will start or there. thank you very much. >> hello, i'm ann, i'm an einstein fellow and a math and computer science teacher at thomas jefferson high school for science and technology. and i'm very glad to be here, but i do have a couple almost concerns. i'm very thankful and glad that the report talked about education, and secretary bryson brought up the importance of educating our youth for the work force of tomorrow to have the technological skills, but i'm also very concerned because that, even the report says more than half the s.t.e.m. jobs are computer-based, and none of our students are seeing computer science in k-12. i'm at one of five high schools in this country that requires computer science of students.
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most schools don't even offer it, and that's a real problem when we look at the skill set and the technology of the future and what's going on in our schools today, so i'm curious for your opinion. >> aneesh, do you want to respond? >> without any doubt, the president has been deeply committed to s.t.e.m. education, and i would break down s.t.e.m -- he wouldn't use these words, but i would. there's a sm strategy and an et strategy. science and math has common cores, standards and so forth, but et is the policy equivalent of a wild, wild west. that is to say there are no national -- there are standards in some cases, pockets of them, but it's an opportunity for innovation. so what you're finding in our policy area is that we are very, very aggressive, we're leaning forward on the whole learning technologies paradigm. in fact, the president delivered a speech at tech boston academy early in the year where he envisioned a world of dramatically more uses of technology in the classroom and the incorporation of
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technologies as a learning tool. and by the way, there is a future here that you don't have to have a ph.d. in physics in order to begin working on coding. in fact, now, in fact, there's -- we just had an event at the white house yesterday celebrating all these summer jobs we're going to provide for young people. there are companies that are offering coding courses, how do you build iphone apps and android apps and so forth that would allow folks in schools to be able to play and tinker. and so you're seeing in the investment innovation fund at the department of education, the i3 fund, opportunities for schools to promote new curricula emphasizing the et. in fact, s.t.e.m. is a key priority in their evaluation criteria. but in addition to that, we're thinking gameification, how do we bring the principles of gaming? one of the things that you've learned from the gaming industry is that every single interaction in a game is an assessment data which the gaming company's use to make better judgments about
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how to -- you look at our ability to assess a child's performance in school, you get like the letter grade at the end of the year, and you take a test, you know? if you compared the data file on a gaming assessment which is, like, you know, megabytes of data per kid versus the two kill bits of numbers on what we know about a child here, so i think you're going to see a couple of pointses from the president -- points from the president. a s.t.e.m. initiative more broadly that's encouraging more innovation in the et, you're going to see more investments in areas that think about the gaming and the other kind of learning technologies' infrastructure which is why we launched digital promise, and then you're going to see a lot of collaborations of the private sector to bring some of those new training programs into classrooms, into career and technical schools, ctes, and i think that's a great area of opportunity and promise. >> terrific. um, we had here move up two spots, and then we're going to go to the back, and i'm afraid
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all -- that's all we can take. >> hi, a co-founder of a social media company that's focused on hospital/physician social networks and an applicant for one of those challenge grants coming up. two questions. one -- >> quickly. >> -- about the structure of that kind of program, wouldn't it be better from a policy point of view instead of like a billion dollar tranche now and a billion dollar tranche coming up in six months if there was a way to make it more evened out over time? so maybe it's a quarter of a billion dollars every three months, and so as new innovations pop up, especially in i.t. where things can happen in a matter of months, you can have a more even, cyclical process? so that's question one. and question two, after we win one of these, the folks we're going to be hiring are going to be, like, i.t.-savvy nurses, you know, ph.d.s in computer science and algorithms. how do you address the fact that, you know, these other countries whether it be singapore that has huge, you
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know, investments in its biotech community have these deep skill sets? be i mean, you're not going to be able to take someone who just lost a manufacturing job and put them overnight in an i.t.-intensive job, so how do you take that middle part of america that maybe didn't have that background that some of us were fortunate to get and give them what they need in order to be able to do 21st century high-end, high value-creating jobs? those were the two questions. >> go ahead. >> first of all, the vast majority of the research that we support doesn't come this way. it comes by supporting people, labs, universities, you know, with long-term sort of basic support. so folks who have a good idea tomorrow have the money they need to go and pursue it. so i do think the majority of our research funds does resolve that problem. the new ideas pop up quickly, and we've got a structure that, um, that addresses that. so, um, i, you know, wouldn't, wouldn't worry about that particular issue. >> does anyone -- go ahead. >> this is really important
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though. the reason why, becky, this particular question is being asked is it's not the must be that the med -- money that the medicare association center is awarding. in fact, i would argue it's not relevant as much. it is the policy tools that say if what you experiment with leads to a new reimbursement methodology that proves that quality goes up and costs go down, you can change the regulation smart policy so that that reimbursement methodology scales. so what we're doing to be very specific in the example i referenced is not basic r&d at all, it is basically ceding reimbursement pilots that with evidence can then scale to change the medicare reimbursement formula and help us create the market conditions for a better economy. i'll take your point -- let's just see what happens in the first tranche. my only other comment is in the recovery act we funded a series of community college programs that are all open source so that now dozens of colleges around the country are training what you would otherwise have called,
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you know, middle class americans in other sectors to take. you could be a medical coder in as little as three months. so, please, i understand you can't be a data scientist in three months, but there's a whole range of jobs that are going to come out of this sector and the grants look for those creation. and so that kind of investment in community college infrastructure was critical to the programming of the, of the health i.t. initiative in general. >> that said, i think everyone who looks at s.t.e.m. understands that, you know, it's not just what you do at college or at age 20, it's what you do at age 5, 6, 10 and 11 that really matters, and in that sense working on s.t.e.m. is not just a matter of local policy, it's state, federal. this truly is a national partnership if we're going to work on s.t.e.m. issues. >> all right. so in the -- also on the aisle in the back, and then we are going to have chances for other people to ask their questions in smaller groups. go ahead, please. >> director of the center for
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learning and competitiveness at university of maryland's graduate school of public policy, current consultant. also with some questions on the talent issue. largely your report has been about framing the federal role, and the role the federal framework could be. one of the talent area that we hear a lot about is immigration, and i was surprised at your leaving that out and interested in your thinking why because historically a big driver of innovation in the united states has been that we've been a place people wanted to come, and we've welcomed the best from alexander graham bell, etc. the other question that i would ask quickly is that for a generation of current americans and parents, we didn't grow up in this world. so we're not used to making decisions about learning s.t.e.m. or the importance of motivating and supporting our children in s.t.e.m.. so how do we tell the story in
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english to a broad number of americans so that adults and young people are making investments in themselves and voters are making choices to support this kind of framework that you all have discussed? >> so let me say a bit about the immigration. i think there is some issue, a small section on immigration in the report. it isn't very extensive, but there's a lot of important issues here that aren't very extensive, and i certainly agree that immigration is an important sort of labor into this country, and making the availability, you know, as others here have mentioned, you know, people to be able to stay in this country and to use their skills, um, you know, within american businesses and american universities is something that we should be all working on to make that more available in terms of immigration reform. um, i can address the question about s.t.e.m., but if others want to, um, so the question how do you motivate kids to be interested in this, and i think let me say two things that are
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really quite different, and as i noted before, i think there are multiple issues here, and there's no one single answer to this. on the one hand, i do think we have to do a better job of teaching science and math at the elementary school level. um, you know, many of our elementary school teachers, wonderful as they are, this is not their particular area of expertise, and it often gets skimped in the curriculum in a variety of ways. and, you know, i know there are a number of pilot projects really trying to deepen both interest and hands-on learn anything some of those fields and see what difference that makes. so there's a curricular issue there. on a whole other side, i really do believe the media here matters, right? and, you know, i just want to see a whole bunch of really great tv and youtube and, you know, other forms of shows, movies where the protagonist is in a laboratory, you know, or is a doctor or is an engineer. you never see those role models -- >> more nciss. >> you know, you could put a
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little bit of seedy sex in -- [laughter] >> the commerce department is now promoting -- [laughter] >> no, on this very point today is a telling day. it's the launch of the first robotics challenge that will come out for the kids to compete in. tens of thousands of can kids across the country. and this particular example, i was a judge in my earlier life, and i was out at the championships last year. filmed the championships for first robotics and paid out of his pocket to buy an abc special for one hour, and he said, look, if black eyed peas can sing at the super bowl, he brought the black eyed peas to sing at the halftime show of first robotics. and that, plus a whole bunch of other background video was in that special. so let's acknowledge that the celebration is a big part of this equation, and i want to just particularly say that today's the day for firsts, so that's a good segway. >> all right. that's an upbeat note for us to
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end this. better that steamy sex. [laughter] >> here's a look at our road to the white house coverage live from new hampshire today on our companion network, c-span. coming up at noon eastern, mitt romney campaigns in hudson, new hampshire. and then at 7 p.m. eastern jon huntsman holds a campaign rally in exeter. the first in the nation presidential primary is tomorrow in new hampshire, and today at 2 p.m. eastern on c-span3, we'll take a look back at the 2008 primary in the granite state with victory and concession speeches. first, john mccain, who won new hampshire, and the republican presidential nomination. we'll then show you speeches from mitt romney and mike huckabee. and after that the dem crajt race with hillary clinton and barack obama. all of that on c-span3 today. >> if you really want to see the candidates, c-span's road to the white house political coverage take you on the campaign trail.
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>> well, i think it's a little hard for pollsters to know exactly who's going to come out. i'm pleased that we're seeing the kinds of crowd that we're seeing, so pretty exciting. >> go to town halls, campaign rallies and meet and greets. [inaudible conversations] >> thank you for coming. it was enjoyable. >> it's a pleasure to have a listening ear. >> okay. >> thank you for giving one. >> i do have a question for you. you talked about bringing manufacturing back here to the united states. what are some of the plans to do that? are you planning on, you know, taxing some of these big countries -- companies, or shipping the work overseas?
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>> i want a tax code that clears out all of the loopholes -- >> watch our new hampshire primary coverage on c-span television and on our web site, >> in 1966 bobby seale and huey newton created the black panther party to promote self-defense of african-americans. in october the group marked the 45th anniversary of his founding with a dinner in philadelphia. here's bobby seale's speech from that dinner. >> the honor that i have tonight is very special and very important. like all of us, we were all young men and women, and we saw a message, we'd seen these two bad brothers stand up and other comrades standing up across this country. we were in philadelphia. brian aaron was -- brother aaron was in seattle, we had people in north carolina, in ohio n detroit n new york, all across this country. you name the places. i can't even think of all of them, but we were young people.
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we were drawn to a message, a 10-point platform program. we was drawn to a mission, and we was drawn to responsibility. now, i could say a lot of things about bobby seale, but i'm going to let bobby do most of the talking. i've had a couple great honors in being with bobby. when i first was called to come to california, they told me pack enough clothes to stay for two weeks, and i ended up staying for five year. the only time we came back was to close the philadelphia chapter and bring everybody to california. and that's how it went. but we followed those orders. sometimes we questioned, sometimes we fought, sometimes we tried to figure, but we just got the job done. and that's what it was all about. and bobby seale was the person that after huey came up with our creative ideas and the theory, but bobby could take this stuff and massage it and put it into a practical way to get it to the comrades, put it in a pact l call way to implement the
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programs, put it in a practical way to show structural support. when bobby seale ran for mayor of oakland, one of the most exciting things i had the chance to be a part of, but it's a short story i've got to tell you. they hid my candidate out on me for a week. they said i had worked my candidate too hard during the campaign, so they took my candidate and hid him for a week. [laughter] took him down to jack london square, put him in a hotel and didn't tell me where my candidate was at. but while we couldn't find the candidate, the message kept going. bobby hit the buses, the housing projects, he hit the malls, we went door to door, we track over conventions, we shook oakland up. this place was shook up. because you had a mormon mayor and a black panther running to take his job. [laughter] can you imagine that? can you imagine that? we, when bobby announced he was going to run for mayor of
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oakland, we had the biggest announcement where we registered 8,000 people at one place at one time with ten-pound bags of groceries, grade a chicken in every single bag. [applause] there was so many other things that has been done. this man was incarcerated. he was gagged. he kept fighting, didn't stop. political prisoners today, bob by with was a political -- bobby was a political prisoner, and he never stopped dealing with the issues that we have to deal with about our other comrades who were incarcerated. we have struggled along the way, but we have also had good leadership. and many of us looked at bobby in all different ways because one thing about bobby, he would come around the comrades and make you feel good good. he would talk you to death. [laughter] he would get into you with such a love and understanding. we talked about emery, we talked about big men, we talked about
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some of our other founding members, big man, elwood howard who's not with us tonight. these were all comrades in the oakland area that drew many of us from across the country. without further ado, i want to bring my leader, my friend, my comrade, my brother, bobby seale. [applause] >> [inaudible] [laughter] [cheers and applause] [laughter] >> as we used to say in all of our sloganizing, right on! >> right on. >> power to the people.
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>> power to the people. >> down with the racist, fascist pig power structure. [laughter] no more pigs in our community. >> that's right. >> party members, they just blew my mind. d.j., i'm telling you just the way that all happened, you know what i mean? it's just -- i look back and say, wow. you know, i was a young engineer in aerospace and electronics on the gemini missile program right outside of oakland. and i worked at night, and i took nine credit hours at merit college. and i was majoring as an engineer and design major. and one day i got interested in all this civil rights stuff. walked across the street, met
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some guys over there who called themselves the afro-american association who came here today to tell it like it is. i saw a guy i knew, his name was william rumsfeld. and i said, william, you part part of this group? he says, yeah, bobby. i said, so, william, what is this? some kind of communist stuff? afro-american, what is that? you have to imagine, now, this is 1962. phrases and references to black folks as african-american didn't exist. black folks still called themselves colored. color and colored, you know what i mean? and i'm just saying there i was listening to these guys, and i asked william, i says what do you mean, communist stuff? i says, you were a socialist. you're -- your brother told me you was a socialist. and i says, i thought the fbi was going to arrest you one day. so he looked at me, and he knew
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something about my history. he says, bobby, who are the sioux? i said, their name is not the sioux, their name is lakota. the word sioux doesn't got nothing to do with our indian brothers here. it was something i knew at age 16, 15 because his brother and i identify with the the lakota people. identified with custer, his battles and stuff, the native americans, etc. and this is a period of time, 15, 16, we didn't know anything, i didn't know anything about my people's african-american history. they didn't teach it, it wasn't around, you know? and growing up at age 15, 16, 17. point is that with that, those guys that day on that street corner caused me to buy a book called face the mountain kenya. i took that book to work with me, and in between inspecting engine frames of exhaust
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housings, i'd sit down at my desk and begin to read this book. jomo kenyatta had come to america got degrees, went to england got degrees, and be went back and was instrumental in organizingize people out from under the yoke of english colonialism. wow, that blew my mind. i got as in math -- cs in english -- but as in math, and i knew nothing about my people's history whatsoever. and that's what caused me to begin to research and know my african-american people's history. next thing i know i'm digesting w.e.b. duboise's black reconstruction, i'm digesting works and publications by dr. herbert absacker. all the wars we fought in the united states including the first colonial war. i mean, this was blowing my mind.
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herbert documented another book of 250 slavery boats from the year 1800 to 1859 and what he considered a slave revolt involving ten or more slaves. and i was flabbergasted that black people had resisted because prior to that they just taught me that black folks was nice and docile and stood on the stoop playing banjo and was basically happy with it. and it was just the opposite. so i'm shocked. i mean, you know, it was a thing. so i'm really an o quest, deny on a quest, a literal question to understand, know and realize my african, african-american people's history of struggle. martin luther king came in town to speak the latter part of that year, and i'm there in oakland auditorium, 7,000 people in there, and martin luther king is castigating all these businesses and stuff for not hiring people of color. and he got to one point in his speech, and he says and we're going to, also, boycott these bread companies, kilpatrick's bread company, and we're going to boycott wonder bread company,
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and we're going to boycott 'em so consistently and so profoundly, we're going to make wonder bread wonder where the money went. [laughter] dr. king. police departments that -- [applause] that caused a standing ovation in that auditorium of 7,000 people, and i'm one of the young students of the year 1962. he was the first perp that truly inspired -- person that truly inspired me. the next was none other than nelson mandela in his plight and the need to end apartheid, and i wednesdayed up at the consulate office in san francisco, an extension of the united nations or something, and so on. and the next thing i know, 1963, i'm in a situation and a period where i'm in a situation and a period where john f. kennedy is killed and then malcolm x leads the nation of islam, and he creates the oaau, and i vowed
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that i'm going to try to get myself to new york at some point and join malcolm x's organization. to push the story on up, malcolm x was killed in 1965. i had a one-man rye development development -- riot. there was nobody else on the street rioting. [laughter] i'm talking about i'm coming down the street from my house with crocodile tears, i'm so upset that malcolm x has been killed, and as far as i'm concerned, the racist power structure had killed malcolm x. i'm kicking in windows, throwing bricks and stuff -- [laughter] and finally my little ram friends came up and got me, and i went back to the house and got my books out. i said, i'm going to find my friend huey. man, you gotta cool down. i said, man, you guys are a bunch of armchair revolutionaries, all you ever do is talk. i need to do stuff, you know what i mean? anyway, what happened to me is that's exactly what i did. i found richard eye owe key, a japanese brother who was one of the first in the black panther
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party, i said where does huey live, and i went over to huey's house with a copy of "the wretched of the earth." i digested, written, rewrote, underlined and rehighlighted and overhighlighted that book, that material, you know what i mean? but i'm saying this was me. i needed to do something. really do something. and i was telling huey that you guys, you need to help me start a new organization because we've got to get something going. huey would say, well, i don't know, man, you know, it's hard to organize black folks. they don't know enough about the black history and etc., blah, blah, blah. and so the next week or so i'm up at merit college organizing people to put black history into the curriculum at merit college where huey and i both went. at this time huey had already graduated, and he was at night law school. and that's what happened. i created that organization. my house some 16 of us young black folks, sisters and brothers, with me coaching and
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others helping wrote four different course syllabus. two courses on black american history, two course on african history. so this is the background of where i was coming from, you know? it was another point a year laettner '6 3, somewhere in there, you know, a point in there that i got huey to come to class with me and argue with my anthropology teacher, you know what i mean? every time she would make reference to black people, she'd say negro, and asian people she'd say mongoloid, and when she made reference to white people, she would say caucasian. we need correct social science. anyway, to make a long story short, i came back and got another meeting in there, and i got huey to come into class and richard and virgil, and i'm arguing again. some of the other black stunts, bobby seale, every time we turn around you running around here in our class, man, with this
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afro-black talk, man, and i'm trying to get educated. [laughter] anyway, huey gets up in the back room and says i'd like to make a suggestion that for correct social science reference -- who are you, the teacher said? i'm here to support bobby's argument about the need for correct social science reference, and i want to suggest africanoid as opposed to negroid. she said, sit down, mr. seale, okay, i accept this. i said, wait a minute, we've got to equal eyes this terminology. you've been arguing for two weeks, i accept this. i said, no, no, you don't understand what's happening here. first we don't want knee groid. negroid. but the black folks and the people of color, they are either mongoloid or africanoid, so all the people of color are a bunch of noids, but when you get over to the white books, they're
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caucasian. what are you trying to say, mr. seale? africanoid, mongoloid and caucasoid. [laughter] so this should give you the psychology of what's happening in development, understanding, trying to expand, making argument. well, i took the black history group once i got it in the class, turned it into advisory council. organized a giant rally, 750 people at the campus against being drafted into the war in vietnam. and with that, huey came to the tail end of the rally. i recited the reform called uncle sammy call me lucifer, and hugh si saw -- huey saw these 750 people, and he said, you organize all these people? i says, yeah, i keep telling you, man, we can organize all across the country. i don't believe this, you got this many people? i says, yes, huey, and we got 250 people signed up.
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now you should come on in to our new organization. yeah, i'm with you. so from that today on, that's what huey and i were, running together, making things, working things out. wound up, wound up fighting the police over -- [inaudible] stood up in front of a judge. judge gave us probation, one year probation because huey was in law school. he was saying we going to get 1-10 years, what's going to happen, because we did a no-contest plea. anyway, the judge gave us one year probation. we got downstairs, and i said, huey, meet me at the poverty agency now. i run all the youth jobs programs, i'm a community leader for the neighborhood service center. i says, huey, meet me there. and that night, october the 10th, the time says 15th, but i wrote it in jail under pressure, i just forgot to date it. it was really october the 10th.
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we looked up the court date that we were sentenced. huey and i wrote the first draft of the 10-point program. we had no name for it. the 10-point platform and program. we were trying to perform our own destiny. decent housing and shelter for human beings, decent education that tells us about our true history, we want -- [inaudible] what was it, six wanted all black men and women to be exempted from military service. we changed that later on to free preventive medical health care. number seven, end the police trying to murder black people. number eight, right to have jurors of our own peers rather than being tried by all-white jurors. and to system up was the first two plaintiffs of the declaration of independence of the united states of america. when in the course -- i thought it was great. huey, look at this. it says when in the course of human events it becomes necessary -- i said, now, we can change this a little bit and kind of paraphrase it, etc.
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when in the course of human events -- listen to it -- becomes necessary for any one people to dissolve the political bondage which have connected them with one another and to assume the laws of nature's going to entitle them, a decent respect to the human kind dictate that they should declare the causes that impel them to dissolve that political bondage when a long train of abuses and patience pursues and invariably takes design to reduce a people under despotism, then it is the right of the people to alter, change their government and provide new government for their future security and happiness. the declaration of independence. [applause] boy, used to say just the white man's knowledge, i said, no, that's my knowledge. ..
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>> you are decreasing the apathy and increasing the consciousness. that's what it was about. how do you educate the people, about programs, about organizing. unify the people. we came up with all these programs beginning with the free press first program, free preventive medical clinics. that so we started with. party members, c. l. washington to winston-salem, north carolina, the boston with the sister who ran the chapter up
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there. chicago, they got creative with the whole concept of grassroots community programs. i looked up in winston-salem has got a free ambulance program. right on, right. i didn't think that what i said said right on. boston, sister jones got a free pharmacy program. hey, right on. sister virginia got a free pest control program. the next thing you know we are 22, 24, expanding after that. programs in the community to organize unified people around. all going out of the foundation of the 10-point platform of our black panther party. that 10-point platform -- [applause] >> probably, you know, even when we wrote that program, i said now here we come we don't want to write some long dissertation kind of stuff. what are you talking about? i said you have some brothers and sisters, they tried to talk
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to the grassroots rather than people. they say the basic social economic structure and adverse subjected to in a sociological and psychological fact, and you know, boom, boom, boom. brother bobby, what you talking about, man? [laughter] you get playing with brothers and sisters then they understand you. that's why we wrote the 10-point program that tried to stay away from the dissertation kind of language. but that program as has been said tonight already is just as relevant today as it was then. and i mean that in a more profound way. this particular movement -- [applause] this particular occupy wall street movement, in my last three the engagements just since fall, i mean, i walked in and the first thing i say to these five or six or 700 students were
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i'm speaking at, occupy wall street. and the whole crowd jumps right on. it's the same. then finally on the internet they put out the first what, 40 some odd points of what they were issuing about. i read them all. what these guys are talking about, every point in the 10-point platform program fits right into everything they talking about. unemployment, housing, et cetera. it's right there. so, you know, our party had a broader class analysis. rather than race only announces. we understood how to look at the brother class analysis of what was happening. so that became literally a stepping stone point, which really began to expand, the great characteristics of black panther party was so great. when we got coalition going, other organizations the red guard, the young chinese asians, an asian student alliance,
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richard, i hope you started, another organization, the young lords political party, and then aim, american indie movement, all wrote their own 10, 12, 14-point program modeling after what we had written but more specifically to the agriculture and the committee and what was happening. and so that 10-point platform and program is basic. i mean, it's no different from a lot of civil rights organizations and other organizations, except that we in the black panther party, really says we live in the right for self-defense. and i guess that's what captured the imagination, not only of a lot of people but captured the imaginations of the white racist power. these negroes are talking at tiffany themselves. well, i'll be darned. [laughter] you know what i mean? they call me when they over to a television in san francisco, race relations in america, and i
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took my 10-point platform and program, but also to 500 of the 3000 racist letters that had been sent to us as a black panther party. i gave a directive somewhere back in all racist letters to all chapters have got to be sent into a to give it to our lawyers because that would be evidence in the courtroom for our rights to defend ourselves, do you know what anime? i took these letters, i dump them them at denny's is why dumping useless goods i said you had one with the program, this is as much is as much as, ku klux klan, not to, talking of killing and murdering black man to go hang is, do this, blah, blah, blah, blah, blah. and i says, boom. i said no, what you need to do, i told those, look at these letters. i said there and no return addresses on none of them. no return addresses on none of them. ice as now, all you peaceloving people, you white, black, blue, red, green, polkadot, you peaceloving people, i ain't
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talking about you. untie but these cold war passionate hard-core raises. every racist who said this, first my home address is on 11th street. you and gonna address. headquarters address is so-and-so. i gave my 10 address the black panther party headquarters but i said when you come to shoot, kill and murder us, when you come, remember we have shotguns, we got pistols and will exercise the right to defend ourselves so we can start shooting us to shoot back. [applause] my point is where to stand up to defend ourselves. talk about defending our constitution democratic civil human rights to organize our people to raise the concept of our people to unify because that's what we're talking about. this was in the module stuff up there, no. you had to be disciplined. even when we took the first comes ou out in the street we disciplined all them brothers. how can you not point a gun? you point it, you cannot point a
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loaded weapon at all this kind of stuff. coming, this is the kind of stuff we talked about. i will never forget that day when we first went out and got the first real discipline organize patrol together. that copps says you have the right to observe me, 56 people standing on the sidewalk, no, california state supreme state says every citizen has a right to stand and observe as long as he stand to raise will distance away. i'm standing approximately three from you and we will observe you whether you like it or not it the system will decide. go ahead and tell it, brother. [applause] the copps said, the cop says, is that downloaded? he said i have it right here. step back. he went back such and such someone versus so-and-so. cannot remove a property property without due process of law. step back into not touch my weapon. the tall brother standing by me,
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what kind of negroes is this? [laughter] that was that night. i have never forgotten that. but we organized, educated them brothers. they had to know the 10-point program. they had to know the weapons. myself, richard aoki, the only wants x. military. we trained huey enabled us about weapons that had to break down the weapon, et cetera and so when. this is the kind of message and you had to know your p/e. we had -- malcolm x's autobiography, and underlying and highlighted and the dictionary and we taught him how to read, taught that brother how to read the next thing you know in a year, bobby -- and that's tough material to read. but let me say so more here about a 10-point platform and program and its relevance. our new organizational
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framework, here at the national association of black panther party, with brother billy and all the other brothers it's about time, the dpp program, all the other brothers and sisters, our brother bobby rush, targeting united states of america, deputy minister of defense in the state chapter of black panther party, he and fred hampton finally put together, you know, it's very important, the black panther party and its political electoral politics, that characteristic was important because he ran for political office without a name on the clinical bout. coalition to we was coalition for 38, 39 different organizations. but by running for political office, what were we talking about? we were trying to implement, huey and i had discussed about the need to change the laws.
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we went to law school, too. we're looking at the laws, beginning to understand and see that the crux, the foundation of institutionalized racism in america was manifested in the laws but if you read a book now today, leon higginbotham broke off shadows of freedom, publisher and 10, 12, 14 years ago, it gives you a rundown of the history of racist laws in america, along with the precept of so-called black inferiority. that's important to read because you understand the history of institutionalized racism manifested in the law. our idea, my idea was to organize all across the united states of america. we evolved to a point by the end of 1969 and jumping into, 69, what we have, 49 chapters of black panther party and other chapters around the country.
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68 different offices in operation. nothing but an extension framework of the black panther party. we created a conference. that was important because what we were talking about is getting some elected offices, city council and you got racist aspect of law in that city council charter, if we got seats in the, we can wipe those laws off the books. or as the race and mentality is nothing but get laws off the books, that was key. so nowadays, all these years has passed, we did a lot of things, all of us. you know, programs, party members, come out here, lieutenant was working on the campaign. i dove right into helping out them out and he did that. he wound up running the philadelphia partner.
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phantasm. bobby rush was telling me about all kinds of brothers and sisters all across the country in politics and in government, in the framework. i used to dream of having multi, multi-thousands more so than we have now of black folks, people of color folks, of the young progressive white folks, all in the political institution, and ultimately changing the system. but there's still some work to be done. it's some unfinished and uncompleted business that's got to be done. [applause] so every organization framework and any kind of progressive move has got, we've got to love and we've got to help young folks, young folks take these political seats, evolved a dog but in a multi-thousands all around the united states. [applause] there are 500,000 political seats that one can be elected to end the united states of america.
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all the states, although county supervisor sees, legislative seats, city council seats, part-time, full-time, what have you, et cetera. think about that. when we start in the 1960s, you know what i mean? i don't know if we attend black folks elected to political office anywhere in the united states of america at that time. a lot of them have been. i'm not saying all of them are perfect, et cetera, but we need more and more progressive folks. that's the real term, the word, the meaning of where we got to go in the future. we are going to take this 10-point platform and program and add to any and all points of protest, points of debate, points of trying to organized and unified people. and we're going to have to work for that, and that's what the in a a bt is helping to do with her unfinished business. this is where we're going to go because it's about our future
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world, future world of cooperation, politically, economically, social justice wise. that's what it's about. getting into the future world, cooperation of humanism. 6 billion living human beings on the earth rapidly getting ready to be 7 billion living human beings on the face of our earth. and that's important. african and african-american people and other peoples of color, other peoples of interest have to work together, can ultimately really totally change and push the system that. capitalism will be here for a while but minimally if at newport legislative framework to get rid and get legislation and politics to cut down the abolitionist of that cap and we will be step-by-step on our way. so this 10-point platform and program of the black panther
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party, the founding documentation of our organization, is alive and its, we have to make it a live with our youth, panther cubs and other panther people to understand that we want to get to the future world of cooperation with humanism. power to the people, thank you very much. [applause] >> good job, good job. [inaudible conversations] >> give him another big hand, and y'all. [applause] >> here's a look at approach to the white house coverage live from new hampshire today on a companion network c-span.
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>> if you want to see the candidates come c-span's road to the white house political coverage takes you on the campaign trail. >> i am please were seen the kind of crowds we are seeing.
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it's pretty exciting. >> go to townhall, campaign rallies and meet and greets. >> [inaudible conversations] >> thank you for coming, it was enjoyable. >> it's a pleasure. >> i do have a question though for you. you talked about bringing manufacture back into the united states. what are some other plans you have? are you planning on taxing some of these big companies are shifting work overseas? >> i want a tax code that clears out all of the proposals -- >> watch our coverage on c-span television and on our website, >> early last year wisconsin
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governor scott walker signed legislation limiting collective bargaining rights for state workers. upon its of the governor are currently looking signatures for an election to recall him. governor walker spoke at the american enterprise institute last week about budget cuts he's instituted in wisconsin.min >> good morning of one. thank you for joining us today at the big enterprise institute my name is nick schultz. i'm the fellow here at aei and also the editor of ati's online magazine, we honored today to have wisconsin governor scott walker with us. over the last year, wisconsinea has emerged as a crucial battleground in the fight over the future of the free enterprise system. specifically the battle over thd role of privileges enjoyed by
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privil public employee unions. let me give you a brief bit on governor walker's background. bn scott walker began his political walk career in wisconsin in the state assembly in 1993 when he earnedr a reputation of the fiscal hawk and a reformer fiscal hawk in the armor. after a stint as milwaukee county executive, he ran for governor and a platform of eliminating the state's budget deficit, creating jobs and cutting taxes. this week marks -- i think is this week marks the first anniversary of scott walker's inauguration in what year it is then. [laughter] in march of 2011, governor walker signed what is known nationally famous legislation to reform public employee bargaining as well as other reforms with an eye towards putting wisconsin on a solid fiscal path. public employee unions five bitterly and unsuccessfully to block reforms. now they are spearheading an
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effort. but that is done all he did in 2011. the milwaukee journal sentinel, which issued out to pose governor walker's reforms and criticized recently wrote, quote, governor to announce the budget. he did reduce structural budget differently and did put a lid on property tax increases. he did give schools and municipalities more control over budgets than they've had in years and his efforts at economic development for corporate tax rates and a revamped congress to permit was promising. so that's a lot of accomplishment in a single year. the conversation today with governor walker's designed to shed light on what's happened over the past year was happening now, but also what it might mean for others dates who face similar issues and for the country as a whole. joining governor walker is my colleague andrew biggs, a resident scholar here at aei and prior to joining the principal deputy commissioner of the
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social security administration. over the last two years, and are as good doing an extraordinary amount of research on employee comp patient, benefits and pensions and revealing than a foot can only be described as unsustainable as his entrance at work dates across the country. the thank you for being here, governor. >> great to be with you. >> maybe would be useful to take time and tell us what the context was when he came into office and go into some detail about the reforms you propose that were ultimately people and why he decided to do this. >> well, i'll start with that. when you think about it, a year ago governor faced a deficit. governors to public incumbent democrat, independent come you name it. nearly everyone of us faced a deficit in the 90s by five different ways you can balance the budget using all or a
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combination of those different ideas. one is you can raise taxes. my neighbors to the south have shown just how the attempt to do that and risk taxes on the 67%. six months later they still have a big budget problem. but that doesn't necessarily work in these tough economic times. another option is you can relax public employees, which is what they're talking about in illinois and connecticut talked about this year, which is what other states talked about. i thought that doesn't make a lot of sense. i don't want any massive numbers in the public or private area. the third option is you can cut coursers is like medicaid. and our state come a lot of people would be surprised, i actually added $1.2 billion to nine medicaid program in wisconsin, one of the largest increases in the country because i thought the growing needs of seniors, needy families in my state come although i did put an reforms so it wasn't a permanent
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entitlement, but a way of providing a safety net, one of the largest per capita, so i visited make a choice of cutting that either. and a fourth option is you can use the citrix. my state have been done previous times in the past and was part of the reason why we have such a large deficit to begin with. we look back and restored some of those -- we stopped the raid on the patient compensation and repay the state of minnesota to tax reciprocity payments so they can put money because we knew that was not a good long-term strategy. so you look at those first four options. none of those in my opinion were options, even though other states chose to answer budget. instead we picked up the option, long-term structural reform. i like to say we pick them out chin to talk more about the next generation and the next election. i've got two sons, matt and alex, junior and senior and i
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wanted to make the state i passed onto them is greater than the one i inherited from the past and for us, that's the real key. in our case on every state is like this, but in wisconsin case, the biggest single portion of our budget overwhelmingly is the local government. having been a county executive, and if you just pass by a cut from local governments that would foresee their higher property taxes, which i didn't want her devastating cuts there as well. so the only way to offset that and give local governments to assist various state government was reform one of the biggest portions of our budgets, which is compensation. what we did was eliminate click bargaining from the state and local government employees for everything except a salary. we kept it so times are tough. like now was there and sacrifice times are good. public employees got the benefit is the rest of the taxpayers did. so do respect for the taxpayers of wisconsin.
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in doing so we are powered not only local government does well to ask for things like a master of pension contribution, which nearly everybody in america does for their retirement and to make a very modest contribution for health insurance premium. in our case 12.6%. the average taxpayer in my state pays 20 to 25% outside of government. so we did all those things, but more importantly without our school districts to do things like that out there health insurance, which is to say tens of millions of dollars. school districts in particular had to buy health insurance from a company owned by the teachers union a bidding that out and hope in the that to our reforms. school districts have saved millions and millions of dollars just by changing where they bought their help insurance from. were able to rein in abuses at them like over time other access without they are by no longer having opportunities were some other state employees could
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literally call in sick on their ship and come back and work the next shift. bus drivers in places like madison made $150,000 summer because of overtime. those things about change and now the powers back in the hands of local officials ultimately the taxpayers of our state. so that's ultimately what we did. seems pretty reasonable when you hear us talk about it. probably the biggest reason i think i am a target is in addition to all of that, we allowed nearly 300 public service we have in our state. third out all of this, despite what the others have said, i've repeatedly talked about my respect for the men and women who dedicate their life to public service, both my kids go to public schools to whether a tradition as well. but we allowed them to do was to ultimately choose. they have the right to choose now in wisconsin. they can choose whether they want to be part of a public employee or not can no longer can they do us but taken from
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payroll. in the end, that's about the focus from out here in washington in terms of the national unions were focused on and it really comes down to is i took away the gravy train come in the free money they had before and gave that right back to the workers to make that decision. not something mandatory and that's really the focus is. >> thanks. i want to talk about some of the specific sonoita creek entering here. andrew, maybe you can give some of the broader trends that have been going on at the lit matches just in wisconsin other states, too. >> thinks a much, governor for coming today. the background of social security in an assertive federal programs. in a way i see it as is trying to fix state and local governments without public.
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compensation might ask in the budget without thinking about entitlements. it's technically possible to do, but very difficult to do. what strikes me about wisconsin in a done a lot of work working with different states. what strikes me as one senses how remarkable it is in this sense that it is not in illinois, not at california, not a rhode island. so the egregious problems are a gracious overpayment drew up in conversation at a good employees. i spent a little time running a few numbers to show how compensation for unemployed wisconsin could compare to a private set her work repair my cat. wisconsin state and local employees choose salaries a little bit below the private sector is a similar education and experience to get. maybe 5% were the difference comes in the same benefits, in
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terms of the health care or a payless them. at the local retiree benefits that can often be generous. i look inside and the wisconsin state after the full career of 30 years, which is considered a full career would receive a pension of $32,000 a year from their retirement system, plus around $13,000 per year from social security peers about the $45,000 a retirement income based on an average final earning around $54,000. but instead of 401(k) plan, they get $88,000 in guaranteed benefits say that they work or
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the same salary he'll end up with $21,000 if they wanted to get guaranteed stable retirement income than employees in wisconsin retirement system get. you get the same contributions in this requiring on the employees contribute to the pension system, even after that the benefits are more generous than what people in a private or get. so there is a comparability issue that is very tough to get out because at the benefits are very difficult to figure out. salaries are easy to look at. additional benefit that many public employees get its retiree health benefits. this is a big difference between state and local governments and wisconsin, where the state-level retiree health benefit or not all that generous compared to california or ohio.
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the local level, benefits can be extremely generous. the milwaukee retirement system in the hot coverage you get after you've retired i believe is one of the most generous in the country. according to their accounting reports, it's the equivalent of getting an extra 17% of pay each year. not something a private set her work are almost never get these days. so is hidden benefits that we really have to account for coming even if salaries are a little bit lower, i called at the benefits more then make up that difference. what that tells you is there is an issue of fairness. you want public employees to be compensated comparably to private set workers. you want to account for how much experience and how much education you havecome up to my thing is roughly comparable between the public sector employees getting paid the compensation and taxpayers who are providing that.
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in a lot of cases that's got a little bit out of whack. i think one of the poinsettias come up in terms of his bargaining is this disparity between the benefits of the retiree at the state and local levels is really interesting. part of it comes that essentially the bargaining power , the buyer can experience of local government relative to large public sector unions is difficult. the state government is bigger. even in many states they have difficulty partnering effectively. local government has a hard time because the public to unions are large and well organized in a school date should my go at this every year. i think even more tools to negotiate a little bit more effectively can bring this back in line and give a more stable and more fair level of conversation, some in that will keep in expenditures and things
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other than cost if you think about schools are being squeezed in terms of things like that. probably that can come because compensation costs are racing. i think you want to have a greater comparability between public and private sector conversation in the burgeoning girls in particular to tools that you don't know what the outcome is going to be. it allows a process that can produce over time. >> just a couple thoughts. one on your analysis of private public dirt, one of the interesting points i made a net privacy today, say it again now as i said throughout this process my respect for people who go into public service. i said at last year no say it again and i understand people go for different reasons and it's 99 out of 100 not because of the benefits or their components. but there is a disparity. but will be dead by then about
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trying to address unevenness between private sector. it was about addressing the long-term budget issues. looking now to the future both the state and particularly local governors. if i tried to come in enough day came in and tried to specs that, i would try making modest adjustment to employee payroll contributions not the benefits themselves, but the retirement system or things like health care. one year we went to the option of saying instead of that, let's do for four months one week a month to 35 hour work week all in an attempt to lay project people's jobs and at the same time as jobs ultimately provide to the public. in nearly every instance, largest unions at the county said forget it.
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but rather had before 500 people laid out because essentially their message was to be gone in a couple years. our employees will come back from my often don't have given up anything in terms of our benefits. what we did was not take benefits away. it was to make realistic opportunities for contributions to pay for those and the irony is wisconsin's case now is matching their pension contribution. engine for state employees is 100% funding. we are not taking benefits away from people. get illinois where they proclaimed in springfield they were going to make reforms, and they have a pension system that lets how to find it and they've got the speaker democrat down there in the past talking about reducing the pension benefit itself for retirees. he don't make structural changes in the finance interface with the horrible decisions on the tail end. by doing this, we get ahead of the curve, so were better off on
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that is called us credit positive, but it's also about protecting not only the taxpayer, but ultimately their career in public service and then at a certain expectation when they require that they will be benefit they are in states that don't make those changes that will be a problem. one other interesting thing is to put this in comparison with the public or, i've got a younger brother a few years younger in this debate was happening last year, he would point out to me. he and his wife and family are typical metaclass family from wisconsin. my brother is a minister at a local hotel and works part-time as a bartender. wife works at a department store. they've got two beautiful daughters, my nieces. you're the epitome of a middle-class family in wisconsin. he said to me shaking his head, i pay more than $800 a month for the health insurance premium and a little bit i set aside for 401(k). you're asking for a fraction of
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that and people are upset about it. to me that was the disconnect a lot of folks have who had worked outside of government that will be scored is not radical. it's actually still pretty generous compared to what most people are outside of government. it is a very reasonable expectation to make sure we can pay for the benefits we ultimately offer. >> i did a quick calculation where i showed that to match the pension benefit that a full career wisconsin state employee with good and to get a guaranteed benefit in retirement as they do come a private sector work with the same salary would invest somewhere close to a third of their salary for 401(k). so one of the things you focus on the main contributions the same when one of the defenses is benefit productions and making contributions based on a formula in the background. that formula is generous. almost nobody today can put a third of their income into a
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401(k). that's really a disparity there would be to do more to boost private savings, no question about that. getting the comparability there really does make sense. these things are just very, very difficult on people because around the country, particularly when ellicott pensions with a contribution to state pensions and medical pensions has gone up because the are dropped and that the costs borne by taxpayers. i think it makes sense to try to smooth that out going forward. it's going to be a tricky situation, this certainly wisconsin is a much better situation than in illinois or things are pretty dire. >> some of the reforms are in place. but it's been the effect across theater at the local level on budgets? are using dynamic effects to anticipated? >> it's tremendous. in fact, early on throughout this process we did a website
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i'd come up with a map of all 72 counties from every different county, from other jurisdictions about school districts to pass budgets for the property tax levy didn't go up or they pointed out because the reforms they were able to -- the great example is to convert it took a $400,000 deficit and turned it into a million hot dollar surplus. the is set to hire more teachers and ultimately said about $300,000 aside for merit pay. we have seen one of the great example as i get a kick out of is the mayor of milwaukee, tom barrett ran against me for governor in march nursery debated this effect but we were proposing would devastate the city. on august 8, the comptroller reported to the city council that are reforms will save net -- net savings from the city of milwaukee somewhere between 11 and $19. of course he was asked by
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reporter at the time if he thought as to the judgment of the city that had but a governor deserves the credit with response that it's a false question. i don't know how false that is. but it's pretty simply the facts. i mean, i'm a great believer in the truth. if you repeat the truth over and over again no matter how many attack at, no matter how many distortions out there come sooner or later they believed people gravitate towards the truth. for us in wisconsin are two key benchmark but i think to find the truth in her state. one was september 1st in my two sons, matt and alex and every other state goes back to school and in nearly every school district across the state, families saw their schools for the same or better. they sought in many cases the reforms not only didn't cause damage, they actually empowered local school districts to make financial decisions and not the
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budget in some cases hire more teachers. but also, the reforms are just about finance his peer up a free work worlds and other changes, now schools and local governments can hire and fire based on merit. we can pay based on performance. the music and that the best and brightest in our classrooms and government positions across the state. i was doing a q&a in northern wisconsin a couple weeks back and at the end one of the superintendents of the small school districts cut up and made a statement intact about how reforms save the money and it's good to keep their staff in place. he said something almost as an afterthought as he went down. i heard and admitted him up and repeated. he said the best part isn't just the finances. the best part is i go back to my office and spend my time worrying about curriculum and not just about grievances. and he said for a specific request rates. change the dynamic in our state.
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you're not going to predecessor was the governor with total democrat-controlled account hundreds of millions of dollars in public education. the difference was they didn't get this schools anyway to respond to that. milwaukee -- it's interesting there is a situation where young woman with india in a new teacher of the year by the english teachers council in wisconsin. she got this great award a week later because of these cuts she was laid off. why is that? because the old collective bargaining contracts, last in, first out. and for the best teachers in wisconsin over some of the first one played out. but that's changed now. the process has changed other than a handful of school districts to ever not been in contract before reforms and into effect. for everybody else is wide open. in indiana was damaged in most any data for state employees can mistake out better.
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get a big difference was a couple of weeks ago when i got property tax bills and for the first time takes years, the tax levey went on wisconsin. our local efforts in schools or better. the reforms are working. >> one of the points they've seen me make is that you very cute this publicly that the reforms will be better for public employees, will be better for teachers. they've been in politics a long time to know that it's very difficult to convince somebody that you know their best interests better than they do themselves. so you make these arguments to teachers and you have some good examples, but they are still opposed to it. how do you breakthrough that? had he convinced them it actually is your best interest? >> again you keep pushing it over and over again. i got a reading initiative just to announce the details of their superintendent public instruction, but i like to read a elementary schools and meet with teachers afterwards. you can imagine a wide spectrum
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of people who hate and people who are open-minded and somewhere in between. i pointed out that if you look at other states around the country, where they didn't do the forms we can accommodate to cut back on aids to schools and higher education and not force laos. so other places there's a lot less public employees and teachers were. we were able to avoid that. the handful of playoffs are in the districts are ranter contracts before reforms went into effect. in total there's about 1200 more that patterson is wisconsin and layoffs overall statewide. like i said, layoffs themselves are concentrated in districts that can take advantage and instead put contracts through. on turn one of the great things in august about a month out those teachers in their state come back and they're getting classroom study. it is amazing how many teachers would come out and say i'm really excited about what he did
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because i went back to school in a ruinous here because they want to be here. they're pumped up comment do's. convert directly with my principal. i'd have to worry about grievances and other issues. i can talk to her superintendent and principal and others out there. i just think there's a whole mother dynamic in place. long-term will reward the best and brightest and be able to keep those great teachers in the classroom and were ultimately going to be able to have a system set up not only save a only save a bit in each of the rewards not only let dollars, but another raise the confidence do they have an excellent c. they provide for students. the biggest winner in matters tuning because students will win because most people i know, my wife and i and our close friends or elementary school teachers. the people i've known, including the kids to teach my kids went into teaching for other great reasons. they want to inspire kids, help them. most say thanks to want to do that. but along the way, somebody got
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tied up in the bureaucracy of not only the union collective bargaining, that education itself and what we did also be allowed us to breakthrough that it empowers teacher to do what they got in the profession for the first place. >> one of the things that's a little frustrating but have wisconsin stories per trade if it's portrayed as your administration on the one hand and the unions on the other. but their other stakeholders stakeholders involved in interest parties. you mention that there's an positive feedback from bond rating agencies. but it's been feedback from other stakeholders in the business community? >> welcome a look at our reforms with collective bargaining as well as with the other things we did. we passed tax relief, nature tort reform, regulatory reform, repeal the estate tax agency and adult things to create a better business. in 2010 the last of my predecessor was in office come
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to see the statewide chamber does a survey to estimate players that may say whether today that wisconsin was heading the right direction or not. 2010, 10% of our employers were sent to the right direction. a couple weeks ago they did the survey came in wisconsin. the number is now 94%. the majority of employers say they're going to hire more players. now, we understand confidence and certainty in the marketplace and ultimately job creation, so we need to do more of that. the three years we lost 150,000 jobs in the dirt. in the first 11 months of last year, numbers flagged by a month and we can just over 16,000 net new jobs in a private set to appear it was subtle way to go when there's a lot more but to do in in the future. that's a tremendous turnaround from heaven not the hundred 50,000 jobs in the past insert only turnaround in terms of the dealing not only within the
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state, but even nationally. msnbc, ford, survival index come even chief executive magazine annually puts a ranking from one to 50. two years occur where a 43 come a year ago we ranked 41 after taking office about six months and tell her form started taking effect. we went from 41 at 224. a jump of 17 spots, fastest increase in the country because people realized that only have we created a better business climate, but when you tackle structural problems and fiscal problems that were the band-aids , but she makes structural reforms that both the state and local level, you make it better stay to invest in. not just for big investors, the small business owners. thinking about adding the five or six or seven more employees who are worried that the future may hold. everything you can do to provide more certainty and stability makes it easier and i think in the coming year, 2012 comments a
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tremendous job growth in wisconsin because of that stability. >> and or, do you see that when you look at different states? what are the effect when states have pursued reforms as opposed to those who haven't? >> well, one of the interesting things is the states and laboratories of democracy we have a lot of different things happening in states across the country. it's interesting to see how things are playing now. you have in california governor brown has hardly seen as a conservative has proposed to significant changes to the pension system for public employees bayard instead of having an traditional pension to have a mix of social security for a smaller td plan. even in new york ran from, governor cuomo has been proposing changes. it's interesting to see how this played out. illinois is in pretty dire straits is really having trouble getting on top of this. i think the real advantage is doing it.
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1.8 added in terms of the changes to compensation is the economist or theoretical standpoint on this. the test of whether these cuts were too large for the increased contribution is to pensions or health care were too big for the workers and state employees are quitting her of her unable to hire people as the state or local governor still able to reattach and retrain employees? >> particularly in a tough economy, with 7.3% unemployment down from 7.6% a year ago, certainly better than 10% in illinois and better than the national average. i think it was a large part driven by some scare type except the public employee unions to try to claim we were going to take and if it's away. i still get that today. i get questions all the time that people think particularly pensions. we are not.
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for making a payroll match to match that. but it is interesting, not only the employment site, illinois a great example because other states and why a man under tremendous pressure is because it is not just republican circus there it is. he mentioned cuomo in new york. you think about paul patrick signing legislation in massachusetts, largely driven by the legislature there, but that was the broken reform for local governments. you think about rahm emanuel and muddy sewage of the city of chicago tackling those challenges. who would have thought when occupied chicago protesters would mention my name in the press, but that is largely because once you're an executive position if you are honest and look at the facts, for a republican or democrat or conservative standpoint, savings or may choose different ways. i take to save money and put it back in the hands of
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entrepreneurs who feel the economy through entrepreneurial spirit. liberals may want to put it in the hands of more government spending. but either case is increasingly come at least a month executives , understanding it or have the option either way if you don't tackle the virus, which is like a speaker and out of control. illinois is a prime example is satisfies in california to a certain extent. but illinois has a pension system that's only about half done. they have a bond trading above their fiscal agents this year talked essentially advised bond buyers not to buy their bonds and raised the question, what is the bottom with the bond ratings out there. and mention that with chief executive magazine. we went up 17 spots not. illinois the last tigers failed to tackle this challenge has dropped five years, 45. "the wall street journal"
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editorial earlier this year or early last year cause a death spiral. if it wasn't for chicago being one of the 12 or 13 megacities at the world, the failure to act on things in springfield would be devastating. for other tax increases this year and in wisconsin saying they didn't do we get coming out there about carving out companies like sears and caterpillar in others because those companies threaten to leave because excessively high tax burdens and failure to take on burdens. they push more of that up to taxpayers in the state. to me, tackling their foreign comic even though it's brought -- i didn't seek national attention. i just look at the second small business owner. the site problem and solution on local government and what to fix it. in retrospect it would've been nice to spend more time talking about details in january and february, building a better foundation.
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i talked about the tens of millions of dollars wasted by school districts not been able to bid out health insurance for the excesses, not successes in overtime for state and local governments have. i'm talking about that now. from my standpoint i said hey, i was allowed to fix that. i spent 18 months in a job interview talking about the fiscal and economic challenges may state is. once i got alike did, which is essentially hired i said i'm not going away. you've got to tackle it right away. so we may be one of the first, certainly not one of the last certainly not republicans doing that. a lot of democratic executives who recognize if your office with the public he got it fixed it. >> i want to talk about the recall and then it, but i want to mention one thing that struck me in doing some reading before this event. you're presented sometimes says rick in the union, union buster,
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but one question that is interesting to a lot of people is this question how to think about: the bargaining. i want to read you a couple quotes i came across. here is one. meticulous attention should be paid to relations of public service to the public itself into the government, the process of collective bargaining is usually understood and cannot be transplanted into public service. i was surprised that was franklin roosevelt in 1937, hardly an antiunion guy. how should the fair-minded citizen to give up what to bargaining? collective bargaining rights take right away, which most fair-minded people say there's something wrong with that. he can't take somebody's rights away. how should the average citizen and about collective bargaining? >> some of the national union support millions of dollars in february march feistier collection is successful.
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collective bargaining in the public sector is it right. it's a sense of entitlement. the reality is non-ascii art in the court yet pointed out, last february that president when i was in madison because i didn't figure he could safely travel to come and do their job, so i stayed put, the chris christie called me because annual luncheon the president has with all the governors, the president took a shot at by saying we were with public employees. so i could have consulted with people may say they got asked about that. i remember i was drawn in the public service by president reagan signed on at the office even if i don't agree with the first amendment. i am sure the president of the united states knows the federal employees don't have wages and benefits.
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the president of the united states knows that on average is 20% of health care premiums, about double what i am not getting because i'm sure the president of the united states is not good at talking points from the national union leaders. the reality is that's what it was. it was a political push to train green beret, which is not inherently fair. i mean, the difference between the public and are is there is no one standing on on behalf of the taxpayers. you ultimately have a cycle that put the taxpayers at a disadvantage. so what we did is say the tax year should be paramount. i respect the hard working people at the local jurisdictions as well. if they elect people on the county boards and city councils and state office is, those individuals should be able to make those decisions. it's quite unlike the dirt where there is a union and an
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arrangement, there's ability to union can strike. the employer can move at all sorts of options that you don't have in the private air. from the union standpoint, the private sector union is parsed in wisconsin are my partners and economic development. they've been great allies for us. you look at the rate my predecessor put on the transportation fund, we restore that. people like operating engineers and they say about overdoing because their people are back to work again. we stop shifting funds. reduce funds for what they were meant to be for. so people overcome the private sector largely benefit. the other interesting thing which is the side of that, this mantra not only better right,, but the middle class. let's be clear, who pays for the expansive government? who historically in this country and state-by-state pays for the excessive expansive government


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